A full list of sources referred to in What We Owe The Future.

Works cited

Abdel-Hamid, O., Mohamed, A., Jiang, H., Deng, L., Penn, G., & Yu, D. (2014). Convolutional Neural Networks for Speech Recognition. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 22(10), 1533–1545.

Acemoglu, D. (2009). Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton University Press.

Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. A. (2005). Chapter 6 Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth. In Handbook of Economic Growth (Vol. 1, pp. 385–472). Elsevier.

Adams, F. C., & Laughlin, G. (1997). A dying universe: The long-term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects. Reviews of Modern Physics, 69(2), 337–372.

Adams, J. (1851). A Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, Vol. 1. In The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: With a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, by his Grandson Charles Francis Adams (Vol. 4). Charles C. Little and James Brown.

Aghion, P., Jones, B. F., & Jones, C. (2019). 9. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Growth. In A. Agrawal, J. Gans, & A. Goldfarb (Eds.), The economics of artificial intelligence: An agenda. The University of Chicago Press.

AI Impacts. (n.d.-a). 2017 trend in the cost of computing [Web Page]. AI Impacts.

AI Impacts. (n.d.-b). AI Timeline Surveys [Web Page]. AI Impacts.

AI Impacts. (n.d.-c). Human-Level AI [Web Page]. AI Impacts.

AI Impacts. (n.d.-d). Trends in the cost of computing [Web Page]. AI Impacts.

Al-Amri, M. D., El-Gomati, M., & Zubairy, M. S. (Eds.). (2016). Optics in Our Time. Springer International Publishing.

Alcor. (2020, January 1). Alcor: Membership Info—Costs [Web Page]. Alcor Life Extension.

Alexander, M., & Beushausen, H. (2019). Durability, service life prediction, and modelling for reinforced concrete structures – review and critique. Cement and Concrete Research, 122, 17–29.

Alexander, S. (2015, October 27). Contra Huemer On Morals [Blog]. Slate Star Codex.

Alibek, K., & Handelman, S. (2000). Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World, Told from the Inside by the Man who Ran it. Delta.

Allam, S. (2001). Slaves. In D. Redford (Ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press.

Allard, R. W. (2019). Plant breeding. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Allen, M. (2015). The Science and Policy of Cumulative and Short-Lived Climate Pollutants [Oxford Martin Policy Paper]. Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford.

Allison, G. (2017). Destined for War: Can America and China escape Thucydides’s Trap? Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

AlphaFold Team. (2020, November 30). AlphaFold: A solution to a 50-year-old grand challenge in biology. DeepMind.

Althaus, D., & Baumann, T. (2020, April 29). Reducing long-term risks from malevolent actors [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Alvarez, L. W., Alvarez, W., Asaro, F., & Michel, H. V. (1980). Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Science, 208(4448), 1095–1108.

Amodei, D., & Hernandez, D. (2018, May 16). AI and Compute [Web Page]. OpenAI.

Amson, E., & Nyakatura, J. A. (2018). The Postcranial Musculoskeletal System of Xenarthrans: Insights from over Two Centuries of Research and Future Directions. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 25(4), 459–484.

Anderson, I. (2002). Foot and Mouth Disease 2001: Lessons to be Learned Inquiry Report [Report]. UK House of Commons.

Anderson, I. (2008). Foot and mouth disease 2007: A review and lessons learned [Report]. UK House of Commons.

Animal Charity Evaluators. (2020). Farmed Fish Welfare Report [Report]. Animal Charity Evaluators.

Anthis, K., & Reese Anthis, J. (2019). Global Farmed & Factory Farmed Animals Estimates [Report]. Sentience Institute.

Anyonge, W., & Roman, C. (2006). New body mass estimates for Canis dirus, the extinct Pleistocene dire wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(1), 209–212.[209:NBMEFC]2.0.CO;2

Arenberg, S., Kuruc, K., Franz, N., Vyas, S., Lawson, N., LoPalo, M., Budolfson, M., Geruso, M., & Spears, D. (2021). Heritable Fertility is Not Sufficient for Long-Term Population Growth [White Paper No. 1]. Population Wellbeing Initiative, University of Texas at Austin.

Aristotle. (1885). The Politics of Aristotle (B. Jowett, Trans.; Vol. 1). Clarendon Press.

Aristotle. (1932). Politics (H. Rackham, Trans.). Harvard University Press.

Armstrong, S., & Sandberg, A. (2013). Eternity in six hours: Intergalactic spreading of intelligent life and sharpening the Fermi paradox. Acta Astronautica, 89, 1–13.

Arrhenius, G. (2000). Future generations: A challenge for moral theory [PhD Thesis]. Department of Philosophy, Uppsala University.

Arroyo Abad, L., & Maurer, N. (2021). History Never Really Says Goodbye: A Critical Review of the Persistence Literature. Journal of Historical Political Economy, 1(1), 31–68.

Asay, J. R., Chhabildas, L. C., Lawrence, R. J., & Sweeney, M. A. (2017). Impactful Times. Springer.

ASC. (2021). Examination Fellowships: General Information [Web Page]. All Souls College – University of Oxford.

Atari. (1977). Video Olympics (Atari 2600)—Online game [Web Page]. RetroGames.Cz.

ATLAS Collaboration. (2019, March 19). All together now: Adding more pieces to the Higgs boson puzzle [Web Page]. ATLAS.

Azad, A. (2019). 1 The Beginnings of Islam in Afghanistan: Conquest, Acculturation, and Islamization. In N. Green (Ed.), Afghanistan’s Islam (pp. 41–55). University of California Press.

Azevedo, F. A. C., Carvalho, L. R. B., Grinberg, L. T., Farfel, J. M., Ferretti, R. E. L., Leite, R. E. P., Filho, W. J., Lent, R., & Herculano-Houzel, S. (2009). Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 513(5), 532–541.

Balter, M. (2007). Seeking Agriculture’s Ancient Roots. Science, 316(5833), 1830–1835.

Bandolier. (2008). Risk of death and transportation [Web Page]. Bandolier.

Banerjee, N. (2017, December 29). How Federal Giveaways to Big Coal Leave Ranchers and Taxpayers Out in the Cold [Blog]. Inside Climate News.

Bang, P. F. (2009). Commanding and Consuming the World: Empire, Tribute, and Trade in Roman and Chinese History. In W. Scheidel (Ed.), Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World Empires (pp. 100–120). Oxford University Press.

Barclay, A. (2007, October 18). A hybrid history. Rice Today.,

Barenberg, A. (2017). Forced Labor in Nazi Germany and the Stalinist Soviet Union. In D. Eltis, S. L. Engerman, S. Drescher, & D. Richardson (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 4, pp. 633–654). Cambridge University Press.

Barnosky, A. D., & Lindsey, E. L. (2010). Timing of Quaternary megafaunal extinction in South America in relation to human arrival and climate change. Quaternary International, 217(1–2), 10–29.

Barnosky, A. D., Matzke, N., Tomiya, S., Wogan, G. O. U., Swartz, B., Quental, T. B., Marshall, C., McGuire, J. L., Lindsey, E. L., Maguire, K. C., Mersey, B., & Ferrer, E. A. (2011). Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature, 471(7336), 51–57.

Bar-On, Y. M., Phillips, R., & Milo, R. (2018). The biomass distribution on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(25), 6506–6511.

Barton, J. (2020). A history of the Bible: The book and its faiths. Penguin Books.

Bauder, D. (2020, June 20). AP says it will capitalize Black but not white [Web Page]. The Associated Press.

Bay, M. (1998). Armageddon [DVD]. Buena Vista Pictures.

BBC. (2021, February 17). Covid-19: World’s First Human Challenge Trials to Start in UK. BBC News.

  1. (2018). Bioeconomy Dashboard [Web Page]. Bioeconomy Capital (BC).

Becker, E. (1998). When the war was over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge revolution. PublicAffairs.

Beckstead, N. (2013, May 27). A Proposed Adjustment to the Astronomical Waste Argument [Web Page]. Effective Altruism.

Beckstead, N., & Thomas, T. (2021). A paradox for tiny probabilities and enormous values [GPI Working Paper No. 7-2021]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

Belfield, H. (forthcoming). Collapse, Recovery and Existential Risk. In P. Callahan, M. Centeno, P. Larcey, & T. Patterson (Eds.), The End of the World as We Know It. Routledge.

Bellomo, M., & Zelicoff, A. (2005). Microbe: Are We Ready For the Next Plague? AMACOM Books.

Benatar, D. (2006). Better Never to Have Been. Oxford University Press.

Benjamin, C. (2021). The Kushan Empire. In P. F. Bang, C. A. Bayly, & W. Scheidel (Eds.), The Oxford World History of Empire (Vol. 2). Oxford University Press.

Berg, C., Bessei, W., Faure, J., Jensen, P., Porin, F., Closas, A., Savory, J., & Whitehead, C. (2000). The Welfare of Chickens Kept for Meat Production (Broilers) [Report]. Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare, European Commission.

Bernard, D., & Schukraft, J. (2021, June 12). Intervention Report: Charter Cities [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Bertrand, M., & Kamenica, E. (2018). Coming Apart? Cultural Distances in the United States over Time [Working Paper 24771]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bertulani, C. A. (2013). Nuclei in the Cosmos. World Scientific.

Bessei, W. (2006). Welfare of broilers: A review. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62(03), 455–466.

BioNTech. (2021). Project Lightspeed – Public [Web Page]. BioNTech.

Bisin, A., Seror, A., & Verdier, T. (2019). Religious Legitimacy and the Joint Evolution of Culture and Institutions. In J.-P. Carvalho, S. Iyer, & J. Rubin (Eds.), Advances in the Economics of Religion (pp. 321–332). Springer International Publishing.

Biswas-Diener, R., Vittersø, J., & Diener, E. (2005). Most People are Pretty Happy, but There is Cultural Variation: The Inughuit, The Amish, and The Maasai. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(3), 205–226.

Björkman, M., & Widmalm, S. (2010). Selling eugenics: The case of Sweden. Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 64(4), 379–400.

Blackburn, R. (1997). The making of New World slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. Verso.

Blackburn, R. (2010). The making of New World slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. Verso.

Blackorby, C., Bossert, W., & Donaldson, D. (1997). Critical-Level Utilitarianism and the Population-Ethics Dilemma. Economics and Philosophy, 13(2), 197–230.

Blackorby, C., & Donaldson, D. (1984). Social criteria for evaluating population change. Journal of Public Economics, 25(1–2), 13–33.

Bletchley Park. (n.d.-a). Mrs Daphne S Crouch [Web Page]. Bletchley Park.

Bletchley Park. (n.d.-b). Daphne S Crouch [Web Page]. Bletchley Park.

Bloh, W. von. (2008). Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics. In S. E. Jorgensen & B. Fath (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Ecology (Vol. 1, pp. 592–598). Elsevier Science.

Bloom, N., Jones, C., Van Reenen, J., & Webb, M. (2020). Are Ideas Getting Harder to Find? American Economic Review, 110(4), 1104–1144.

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415), eaam5979.

BNSF Railway. (2018). Guide to Coal Mines: Mines Served by BNSF Railway. Coal Business Unit, BNSF Railway.

Bodde, D. (1986). Chapter 1: The state and empire of Ch’in. In D. Twitchett & M. Loewe (Eds.), The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 1, pp. 20–102). Cambridge University Press.

Boeke, J. D., Church, G., Hessel, A., Kelley, N. J., Arkin, A., Cai, Y., Carlson, R., Chakravarti, A., Cornish, V. W., Holt, L., Isaacs, F. J., Kuiken, T., Lajoie, M., Lessor, T., Lunshof, J., Maurano, M. T., Mitchell, L. A., Rine, J., Rosser, S., … Yang, L. (2016). The Genome Project-Write. Science, 353(6295), 126–127.

Bolt, J., & van Zanden, J. L. (2014). The Maddison Project: Collaborative research on historical national accounts: The Maddison Project. The Economic History Review, 67(3), 627–651.

Bolt, J., & van Zanden, J. L. (2020). Maddison style estimates of the evolution of the world economy. A new 2020 update [Dataset]. Maddison Project Database, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.

Bornstein, G. (2015). Reading Thucydides in America Today. Sewanee Review, 123(4), 661–667.

Boroditsky, L., & Gaby, A. (2010). Remembrances of Times East: Absolute Spatial Representations of Time in an Australian Aboriginal Community. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1635–1639.

Bostrom, N. (1998). How Long Before Superintelligence? International Journal of Futures Studies, 2.

Bostrom, N. (2002). Existential risks: Analyzing human extinction scenarios and related hazards. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 9(1).

Bostrom, N. (2003). Astronomical Waste: The Opportunity Cost of Delayed Technological Development. Utilitas, 15(3), 308–314.

Bostrom, N. (2004). The Future of Human Evolution. In C. Tandy (Ed.), Death and Anti-Death, Volume 2: Two Hundred Years After Kant, Fifty Years After Turing (pp. 339–371). Ria University Press.

Bostrom, N. (2009). Pascal’s mugging. Analysis, 69(3), 443–445.

Bostrom, N. (2012). The Superintelligent Will: Motivation and Instrumental Rationality in Advanced Artificial Agents. Minds and Machines, 22(2), 71–85.

Bostrom, N. (2013). Existential Risk Prevention as Global Priority: Existential Risk Prevention as Global Priority. Global Policy, 4(1), 15–31.

Bostrom, N. (2014ab). Superintelligence: Paths, dangers, strategies (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.

Bostrom, N. (2014c). Crucial Considerations and Wise Philanthropy [Transcript]. Effective Altruism.

Bostrom, N., & Sandberg, A. (2008). Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap [Technical Report #2008-3]. Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford.

Bourguignon, F., & Morrisson, C. (2002). Inequality Among World Citizens: 1820–1992. American Economic Review, 92(4), 727–744.

Bouscasse, P., Nakamura, E., & Steinsson, J. (2021). When Did Growth Begin? New Estimates of Productivity Growth in England from 1250 to 1870 [NBER Working Paper 28623]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2011). A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution (1st ed.). Princeton University Press.

Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1988). Culture and the evolutionary process. University of Chicago Press.

Bradley, K. (2011). Slavery in the Roman Republic. In K. Bradley & P. Cartledge (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 241–264). Cambridge University Press.

Brauer, J., & Call, J. (2015). Apes produce tools for future use: Tool Production. American Journal of Primatology, 77(3), 254–263.

Braumoeller, B. F. (2019). Only the dead: The persistence of war in the modern age. Oxford University Press.

Brendlinger, I. A. (1997). Anthony Benezet: True Champion of the Slave. Faculty Publications – College of Christian Studies, Paper 119, 23.

Brennan, A., & Lo, Y.-S. (2021). Environmental Ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Briot, J.-P., Hadjeres, G., & Pachet, F.-D. (2020). Deep Learning Techniques for Music Generation. Springer International Publishing.

Broome, J. (1996). The Welfare Economics of Population. Oxford Economic Papers, 48(2), 177–193.

Broome, J. (2004). Weighing Lives. Oxford University Press.

Broughton, J. M., & Weitzel, E. M. (2018). Population reconstructions for humans and megafauna suggest mixed causes for North American Pleistocene extinctions. Nature Communications, 9(1), 5441.

Brown, C. L. (2006). Moral capital: Foundations of British abolitionism. University of North Carolina Press.

Brown, C. L. (2007). Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade. In G. Heuman & T. Burnard (Eds.), The Routledge History of Slavery (pp. 281–297). Routledge.

Brown, C. L. (2012). Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism. The University of North Carolina Press.

Brown, T., Mann, B., Ryder, N., Subbiah, M., Kaplan, J. D., Dhariwal, P., Neelakantan, A., Shyam, P., Sastry, G., Askell, A., Agarwal, S., Herbert-Voss, A., Krueger, G., Henighan, T., Child, R., Ramesh, A., Ziegler, D., Wu, J., Winter, C., … Amodei, D. (2020). Language Models are Few-Shot Learners. In H. Larochelle, M. Ranzato, R. Hadsell, M. F. Balcan, & H. Lin (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (Vol. 33, pp. 1877–1901).

Brundage, M. (2016, February 27). AlphaGo and AI Progress [Blog]. Miles Brundage.

Buhaug, H., Nordkvelle, J., Bernauer, T., Böhmelt, T., Brzoska, M., Busby, J. W., Ciccone, A., Fjelde, H., Gartzke, E., Gleditsch, N. P., Goldstone, J. A., Hegre, H., Holtermann, H., Koubi, V., Link, J. S. A., Link, P. M., Lujala, P., O′Loughlin, J., Raleigh, C., … von Uexkull, N. (2014). One effect to rule them all? A comment on climate and conflict. Climatic Change, 127(3–4), 391–397.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. (2021). Nuclear Notebook [Dataset]. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Burdekin, K. (1985). Swastika night. Feminist Press. (Original work published 1937)

Burrows, G., & Shlomowitz, R. (1992). The Lag in the Mechanization of the Sugarcane Harvest: Some Comparative Perspectives. Agricultural History, 66(3), 61–75.

Buzan, J. R., & Huber, M. (2020). Moist Heat Stress on a Hotter Earth. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 48(1), 623–655.

Cahill, L. S. (2013). Early Christian Ethics. In H. Lafollette (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics (p. wbiee327). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Cai, L. (2014). Witchcraft and the rise of the first Confucian empire. State University of New York Press.

Callaway, E. (2020). ‘It will change everything’: DeepMind’s AI makes gigantic leap in solving protein structures. Nature, 588(7837), 203–204.

Campbell, G. (2004). Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia (1st ed.). Routledge.

Campbell, G. (2010). Slavery In The Indian Ocean World. In G. Heuman & T. Burnard (Eds.), The Routledge History of Slavery (1st ed., pp. 52–63). Routledge.

Caplan, B. (2008). The totalitarian threat. In N. Bostrom, M. M. Cirkovic, & M. J. Rees (Eds.), Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford University Press.

Capra, F. (2007, 1958). 1958—Global Warming—It’s NOT newly known [Extract from documentary Unchained Goddess]. Bell Labs.

Carlier, A., & Treich, N. (2020). Directly Valuing Animal Welfare in (Environmental) Economics. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, 14(1), 113–152.

Carlsmith, J. (2021, April 28). Draft report on existential risk from power-seeking AI [Blog]. AI Alignment Forum.

Carmi, N. (Ed.). (n.d.). Pirkei Avot 1,14 (J. Kulp, Trans.). Sefaria. Retrieved December 16, 2021, from

Carus, S. (2017a). A Short History of Biological Warfare: From Pre-History to the 21st Century. National Defense University Press.

Carus, S. (2017b). A century of biological-weapons programs (1915–2015): Reviewing the evidence. The Nonproliferation Review, 24(1–2), 129–153.

Cashman, G. (2013). What causes war? An introduction to theories of international conflict (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.

Catholic News Agency. (2017, May 18). No research justifies the use of human embryos, Pope Francis says. Catholic News Agency.

Caviola, L., Althaus, D., Mogensen, A. L., & Goodwin, G. P. (2022). Population ethical intuitions. Cognition, 218, 104941.

Caviola, L., Hoskin, A., & Lewis, J. (2021). Do people think their lives are worth living? —A survey in India and the US [Working Paper].

Cedzich, U.-A. (2001). Corpse Deliverance, Substitute Bodies, Name Change, and Feigned Death: Aspects of Metamorphosis and Immortality in Early Medieval China. Journal of Chinese Religions, 29(1), 1–68.

Center for Spatial Information Science. (2015). 2015 MEA Statistics [Dataset]. Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo.

Center for the Governance of AI. (n.d.). Centre for the Governance of AI | Home [Web Page]. Center for the Governance of AI. Retrieved November 29, 2021, from

CERN. (2017, July 11). LHC experiments delve deeper into precision [Web Page]. CERN.

Chan, M. (2016, January 12). Here’s How Winning the Lottery Makes You Miserable. Time.

Chaney, E. (2016). Religion and the Rise and Fall of Islamic Science [Working Paper]. Department of Economics, University of Oxford.

Chang, J., & Halliday, J. (2006). Mao: The unknown story. Anchor Books.

Chang, R. (2002). The Possibility of Parity. Ethics, 112(4), 659–688.

Chantrill, C. (2021). UK Central Government and Local Authority Revenue in 1833—Charts [Web Page]. Ukpublicrevenue.Co.Uk.

Chapman, C. (1998). History of the Asteroid/Comet Impact Hazard [Web Page]. Southwest Research Institute.

Charities Aid Foundation. (2019). CAF’s World Giving Index—10th Edition. Charities Aid Foundation.

Charter Cities Institute. (2019). Introduction to Charter Cities [Web Page]. Charter Cities Institute.

Chen, L., Wolf, A. B., Fu, W., Li, L., & Akey, J. M. (2020). Identifying and Interpreting Apparent Neanderthal Ancestry in African Individuals. Cell, 180(4), 677-687.e16.

Chen, M., Radford, A., Child, R., Wu, J., Jun, H., Luan, D., & Sutskever, I. (2020). Generative Pretraining From Pixels. In H. D. III & A. Singh (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning (Vol. 119, pp. 1691–1703). PMLR.

Child, R., Gray, S., Radford, A., & Sutskever, I. (2019). Generating Long Sequences with Sparse Transformers. ArXiv:1904.10509 [Cs, Stat].

China Daily. (2020, April 27). Top 10 Chinese cities by per capita GDP in 2019. China Daily.

China Global Television Network. (2017, February 19). 2,000-year-old classic becomes bestseller in China. China Daily.

Cho, A. (2012). Higgs Boson Makes Its Debut After Decades-Long Search. Science, 337(6091), 141–143.

Choi, K., Fazekas, G., Cho, K., & Sandler, M. (2018). A Tutorial on Deep Learning for Music Information Retrieval. ArXiv:1709.04396 [Cs].

Christensen, P., Gillingham, K., & Nordhaus, W. (2018). Uncertainty in forecasts of long-run economic growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(21), 5409–5414.

Christensen, V., Coll, M., Piroddi, C., Steenbeek, J., Buszowski, J., & Pauly, D. (2014). A century of fish biomass decline in the ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 512, 155–166.

Christian, B. (2021). The alignment problem: How can artificial intelligence learn human values? Atlantic Books.

Christiano, P. (2013, April 30). Astronomical waste [Blog]. Rational Altruist.

Christiano, P. (2016, November 19). AI “safety” vs “control” vs “alignment” [Web Page]. AI Alignment.

Christiano, P. (2017, October 4). Hyperbolic growth [Blog]. The Sideways View.

Christiano, P. (2020, April 3). Current Work in AI Alignment [Web Page]. Effective Altruism.

Christiano, P. (2018a). Clarifying “AI alignment” [Web Page]. AI Alignment.

Christiano, P. (2018b). When is unaligned AI morally valuable? [Web Page]. AI Alignment.

Chugoku Shimbun. (2014). Hiroshima: 70 Years After the A-bombing: Donated Records [Web Page]. Hiroshima Peace Media Center.

Chvaja, R. (2020). Why Did Memetics Fail? Comparative Case Study. Perspectives on Science, 28(4), 542–570.

CIA. (2021). Afghanistan. In The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.

Cioni, M., Federico, G., & Vasta, M. (2020). The long-term evolution of economic history: Evidence from the top five field journals (1927–2017). Cliometrica, 14(1), 1–39.

Cirillo, P., & Taleb, N. N. (2016a). On the statistical properties and tail risk of violent conflicts. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 452, 29–45.

Cirillo, P., & Taleb, N. N. (2016b). The Decline of Violent Conflicts: What Do the Data Really Say? SSRN Electronic Journal.

Clark, A. E., Flèche, S., & Senik, C. (2016). Economic Growth Evens Out Happiness: Evidence from Six Surveys. Review of Income and Wealth, 62(3), 405–419.

Clark, G. (2016). Microbes and Markets: Was the Black Death an Economic Revolution? Journal of Demographic Economics, 82(2), 139–165.

Clark, P. U., Shakun, J. D., Marcott, S. A., Mix, A. C., Eby, M., Kulp, S., Levermann, A., Milne, G. A., Pfister, P. L., Santer, B. D., Schrag, D. P., Solomon, S., Stocker, T. F., Strauss, B. H., Weaver, A. J., Winkelmann, R., Archer, D., Bard, E., Goldner, A., … Plattner, G.-K. (2016). Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change. Nature Climate Change, 6(4), 360–369.

Clark, R. W. (2013). J.B.S: The life and Work of J.B.S Haldane. Bloomsbury Reader.

Clarke, A. C. (1973). Rendezvous with Rama. Gollancz.

Clarke, A. C. (1998). Spaceguard revisited [Convocation Address].

Clarke, S., Carlier, A., & Schuett, J. (2021a). Survey on AI existential risk scenarios [Working Paper]. Centre for the Governance of AI.

Clarke, S., Carlier, A., & Schuett, J. (2021b). Survey on AI existential risk scenarios [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Clarke, S., & Martin, S. D. (2021, September 8). Distinguishing AI takeover scenarios [Blog]. AI Alignment Forum.

Clayton, N. S., Bussey, T. J., & Dickinson, A. (2003). Can animals recall the past and plan for the future? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(8), 685–691.

Climate Action Tracker. (2021, November 9). Temperatures [Web Page]. Climate Action Tracker.

CNN. (2003, December 1). “Foot in Mouth” Prize for Rumsfeld. CNN.

Cochran, T., & Norris, R. (2021). Nuclear weapon. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Cochrane, J. H. (2020, December 7). Free Market Vaccines [Blog]. The Grumpy Economist.

Cole, W. P. (1968). Henry Dawkins and the Quaker Comet. Winterthur Portfolio, 4, 35–46.

Coleman, N. (2020, July 5). Why We’re Capitalizing Black. The New York Times.

Coleman, S. J. (2008). Gradual Abolition or Immediate Abolition of Slavery? The Political, Social and Economic Quandary of Emperor Haile Selassie I. Slavery & Abolition, 29(1), 65–82.

Colson, T. (2016, December). Oxford University Offers the “world’s Hardest Test”—Here’s How to Answer the Questions. Business Insider.

Compassion in World Farming. (2009). The Welfare of Farmed Fish [Report]. Compassion in World Farming.

Compassion in World Farming. (2021). Fish welfare [Web Page]. Compassion in World Farming.

Confucius. (2020). Book Two: Exerting political authority. . . In M. Roberts (Trans.), The Analects (pp. 31–39). University of California Press. (Original work published c. 497 BC)

Cook, A. P. (2017). Mississippi State Penitentiary. In K. R. Kerley (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Corrections (pp. 1–3). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cotra, A. (n.d.). Computation required to train a transformative model as of 2020 [Web Page]. Colab Notebook. Retrieved March 24, 2022, from

Cotra, A. (2017, September 15). How Will Hen Welfare Be Impacted by the Transition to Cage-Free Housing? [Web Page]. Open Philanthropy.

Cotra, A. (2020, September 18). Draft report on AI timelines [Blog]. AI Alignment Forum.

Cotra, A. (2021, September 21). Why AI alignment could be hard with modern deep learning [Web Page]. Cold Takes.

Cotton-Barratt, O. (2016, November 18). Prospecting for Gold [Web Page]. Effective Altruism.

Coupe, J., Bardeen, C. G., Robock, A., & Toon, O. B. (2019). Nuclear Winter Responses to Nuclear War Between the United States and Russia in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Version 4 and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(15), 8522–8543.

Cowen, T. (2006). The Epistemic Problem Does Not Refute Consequentialism. Utilitas, 18(4), 383–399.

Cowen, T. (2018). Stubborn attachments: A vision for a society of free, prosperous, and responsible individuals (First edition). Stripe Press.

Crafts, N., & Mills, T. (2017, July 17). Economic models vs ‘techno-optimism’: Predicting medium-term total factor productivity rates in the US [Web Page]. VoxEU.Org.

Crane, J. K. (2014). Stem Cell Research and Judaism. Religions: A Scholarly Journal, 2014(2).

Crawford, D. A. (1997). Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Fragment Size and Mass Estimates from Light Flux Observations. 28th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 267.

Credé, M., Bashshur, M., & Niehorster, S. (2010). Reference Group Effects in the Measurement of Personality and Attitudes. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(5), 390–399.

Cremer, C. Z. (2021). Deep limitations? Examining expert disagreement over deep learning. Progress in Artificial Intelligence, 10(4), 449–464.

Crisp, R. (2021). Well-Being. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Crossley, P. K. (2011). Slavery in Early Modern China. In D. Eltis & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 3, pp. 186–214). Cambridge University Press.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (Ed.). (2006). Readings in Han Chinese thought. Hackett Pub. Co.

Cullenward, D., & Victor, D. G. (2020). Making climate policy work. Polity Press.

Curry, O. S., Mullins, D. A., & Whitehouse, H. (2019). Is It Good to Cooperate? Testing the Theory of Morality-as-Cooperation in 60 Societies. Current Anthropology, 60(1), 47–69.

Curtin, P. D., & Vansina, J. (1964). Sources of the Nineteenth Century Atlantic Slave Trade. The Journal of African History, 5(2), 185–208.

Cyranoski, D. (2018). First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep. Nature, 553(7689), 387–388.

Dahlgreen, W. (2016, January 5). Chinese people are most likely to feel the world is getting better [Web Page]. YouGov.

Daigo, I., Hashimoto, S., Murakami, S., Oguchi, M., & Tasaki, T. (2010). Lifespan database for Vehicles, Equipment, and Structures: LiVES [Dataset]. National Institute for Environmental Studies.

Dancy, J. (2020). Parfit, Derek, 1942-2017. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the British Academy, XIX, 37–57.

Daniel, M., & Todd, B. (2021, March 25). How much does performance differ between people? [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Dantas, M. A. T., Dutra, R. P., Cherkinsky, A., Fortier, D. C., Kamino, L. H. Y., Cozzuol, M. A., Ribeiro, A. de S., & Vieira, F. S. (2013). Paleoecology and radiocarbon dating of the Pleistocene megafauna of the Brazilian Intertropical Region. Quaternary Research, 79(1), 61–65.

Dartnell, L. (2015a). The knowledge: How to rebuild our world from scratch. Penguin Books.

Dartnell, L. (2015b). Could we reboot a modern civilisation without fossil fuels? Aeon.

Davidson, T. (2021a). Report on Semi-informative Priors [Blog]. Open Philanthropy.

Davidson, T. (2021b). Could Advanced AI Drive Explosive Economic Growth? [Web Page]. Open Philanthropy.

Davies, J. (2021). Being the Person Your Dog Thinks You Are: The Science of a Better You. Pegasus Books.

Davies, N. (2006). Europe at war, 1939-1945: No simple victory. Macmillan.

Davis, D. B. (2006). Inhuman bondage: The rise and fall of slavery in the New World. Oxford University Press.

Davis, D. B., & Solow, B. L. (2012, January 12). The British & the Slave Trade.

Davis, D. R., & Weinstein, D. E. (2008). A Search for Multiple Equilibria in Urban Industrial Structure. Journal of Regional Science, 48(1), 29–65.

Davis, S. J., Lewis, N. S., Shaner, M., Aggarwal, S., Arent, D., Azevedo, I. L., Benson, S. M., Bradley, T., Brouwer, J., Chiang, Y.-M., Clack, C. T. M., Cohen, A., Doig, S., Edmonds, J., Fennell, P., Field, C. B., Hannegan, B., Hodge, B.-M., Hoffert, M. I., … Caldeira, K. (2018). Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science, 360(6396), eaas9793.

De Robertis, E. M. (2008). Evo-Devo: Variations on Ancestral Themes. Cell, 132(2), 185–195.

de Solla Price, D. (1975). Science since Babylon (Enlarged ed.). Yale University Press.

DeepMind. (n.d.). DeepMind [Web Page]. DeepMind. Retrieved November 29, 2021, from

DeepMind. (2020). AlphaGo: The story so far [Web Page]. DeepMind.

Defler, T. (2019a). History of Terrestrial Mammals in South America. Springer International Publishing.

Defler, T. (2019b). Pleistocene Mammal Communities and Their Extinction. In T. Defler, History of Terrestrial Mammals in South America (Vol. 42, pp. 289–302). Springer International Publishing.

DeLong, J. B. (1998, May 24). Estimating World GDP, One Million B.C. – Present [Web Page]. Brad DeLong’s Home Page.

Delsuc, F., Gibb, G. C., Kuch, M., Billet, G., Hautier, L., Southon, J., Rouillard, J.-M., Fernicola, J. C., Vizcaíno, S. F., MacPhee, R. D. E., & Poinar, H. N. (2016). The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct glyptodonts. Current Biology, 26(4), R155–R156.

Devlin, J., Chang, M.-W., Lee, K., & Toutanova, K. (2019). BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding. Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, 1, 4171–4186.

Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2018a). Advances and Open Questions in the Science of Subjective Well-Being. Collabra: Psychology, 4(1), 15.

Diener, E., Diener, C., Choi, H., & Oishi, S. (2018b). Revisiting “Most People Are Happy”—And Discovering When They Are Not. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 166–170.

DiMaggio, E. N., Campisano, C. J., Rowan, J., Dupont-Nivet, G., Deino, A. L., Bibi, F., Lewis, M. E., Souron, A., Garello, D., Werdelin, L., Reed, K. E., & Arrowsmith, J. R. (2015). Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia. Science, 347(6228), 1355–1359.

Dirzo, R., Young, H. S., Galetti, M., Ceballos, G., Isaac, N. J. B., & Collen, B. (2014). Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science, 345(6195), 401–406.

Doebley, J., Stec, A., Wendel, J., & Edwards, M. (1990). Genetic and morphological analysis of a maize-teosinte F2 population: Implications for the origin of maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87(24), 9888–9892.

Donoghue, P., & Purnell, M. (2005). Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20(6), 312–319.

Dosovitskiy, A., Beyer, L., Kolesnikov, A., Weissenborn, D., Zhai, X., Unterthiner, T., Dehghani, M., Minderer, M., Heigold, G., Gelly, S., Uszkoreit, J., & Houlsby, N. (2021). An Image is Worth 16×16 Words: Transformers for Image Recognition at Scale. International Conference on Learning Representations 2021.

Drake, T. E. (1950). Quakers and slavery in America. Yale University Press.

Dral-Khalili, J. (2014). The house of wisdom: How arabic science saved ancient knowledge and gave us the renaissance. Penguin Books.

Drescher, S. (2010). Econocide: British slavery in the era of abolition (2nd ed). University of North Carolina Press. (Original work published 1977)

Drexler, K. E. (2019). Reframing Superintelligence [Technical Report #2019-1]. Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford.

Du, J. (2020). The Shenzhen experiment: The story of China’s instant city. Harvard University Press.

Dubs, H. H. (1938). The Victory of Han Confucianism. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 58(3), 435.

Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence. In Nations and Households in Economic Growth (pp. 89–125). Elsevier.

Easterlin, R. A., & O’Connor, K. (2020). The Easterlin Paradox. IZA Discussion Papers No. 13923.

Eaton, R. M. (2006). Introduction. In I. Chatterjee & R. M. Eaton (Eds.), Slavery and South Asian History (pp. 1–16). Indiana University Press.

Economist. (2007, December 19). The battle of the books. The Economist.

Economist. (2017, March 16). Prison labour is a billion-dollar industry, with uncertain returns for inmates. The Economist.

Economist. (2018, May 5). Many countries suffer from shrinking working-age populations. The Economist.

Economist. (2021b). What is the economic cost of covid-19? The Economist.

Economist. (2021c). The pandemic’s true death toll [Dataset]. The Economist.

Edlin, A., Gelman, A., & Kaplan, N. (2007). Voting as a Rational Choice: Why and How People Vote To Improve the Well-Being of Others. Rationality and Society, 19(3), 293–314.

Edmonds, D. (2014, August). Reason and romance: The world’s most cerebral marriage. Prospect Magazine.

Elagina, D. (2021, August 24). Coal production in Russia from 2000 to 2020, by mining method [Web Page]. Statista.

Ellman, M. (2002). Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments. Europe-Asia Studies, 54(7), 1151–1172.

Ellsberg, D. (2017). The doomsday machine: Confessions of a nuclear war planner. Bloomsbury.

Eltis, D. (1999). The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Eltis, D., & Engerman, S. L. (2011). Dependence, Servility, and Coerced Labor in Time and Space. In D. Eltis & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1–22). Cambridge University Press.

Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2018). Communities—Homosexuality—Central Criminal Court [Database]. Old Bailey Proceedings Online.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (1998). Three Kingdoms period | Korean history. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2007). Cathari. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2011). Circus Maximus. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2014). List of amendments to the U.S. Constitution. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016). Aymara. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Third International. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2018a). Kushan dynasty. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019b). Serfdom. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019c). Gupta dynasty. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019d). Warring States. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020b). Abbasid caliphate. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020c). Sasanian dynasty. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020d). Pong. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020e). Maya. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020f). Women’s suffrage. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2020g). Rashidun. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2021b). Great Purge. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2021d). Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2021e). Han dynasty. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2021f). Teotihuacán. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Engelen, S., Reheul, D., & De Cauwer, B. (2004). The quantitative and qualitative difference between a F1 hybrid of maize and its F2 generation. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 69(1), 41–47.

Esipova, N., Pugliese, A., & Ray, J. (2018, December 10). More Than 750 Million Worldwide Would Migrate If They Could [Web Page]. Gallup Inc.

Esser, P., Rombach, R., & Ommer, B. (2021). Taming Transformers for High-Resolution Image Synthesis. 2021 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 12868–12878.

Evans, S. (2019, November 13). ‘Profound shifts’ underway in energy system, says IEA World Energy Outlook [Web Page]. Carbon Brief.

Everett, D. L. (2008). Don’t sleep, there are snakes: Life and language in the Amazonian jungle (1st ed). Pantheon Books.

Eyre, C. (2018, February 1). Harry Potter book sales top 500 million worldwide [Web Page]. The Bookseller.

Falkner, R. (2009). Business Power and Conflict in International Environmental Politics. Palgrave Macmillan.

Fang, X. (2014). China’s Foundational Thought and Ancient Philosophers. International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 2(2), 47–54.

FAO. (2021a). FAOSTAT [Dataset]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

FAO. (2021b). FAOSTAT – Crops and livestock products [Dataset]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Feenstra, R. C., Inklaar, R., & Timmer, M. P. (2015). The Next Generation of the Penn World Table. American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150–3182.

Feng, Y. (1997). A short history of Chinese philosophy (D. Bodde, Ed.). Free Press.

Fernald, J. G. (2014). John G. Fernald—TFP Data [Dataset]. John G. Fernald.

Ferreira, R. (2011). Slaving and Resistance to Slaving in West Central Africa. In D. Eltis & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 3, pp. 111–131). Cambridge University Press.

Finch, C. E. (2010). Evolution of the human lifespan and diseases of aging: Roles of infection, inflammation, and nutrition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(suppl_1), 1718–1724.

Finnveden, L., Riedel, J., & Shulman, C. (2022). AGI and lock-in. Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford.

Fish, I. S. (2013, October 9). Why the Bestselling Chinese Book of All Time Is Out of Print. Foreign Policy.

Fodor, J. (2020, December 12). The Fermi Paradox has not been dissolved [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Fogel, R. W. (1994). Without consent or contract: The rise and fall of American slavery. Norton.

Ford, T. H. (2010). Mary Wollstonecraft and the Motherhood of Feminism. WSQ: Women’s Studies Quarterly, 37(2), 189–205.

Forsdyke, S. (2021). Being a Slave. In Slaves and Slavery in Ancient Greece (pp. 102–160). Cambridge University Press.

Forst, R. (2017). Toleration. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Fortson, D. (2017, August 20). Blood extract of teenager on sale at just £6,000 a shot. The Sunday Times.

Foster, G. L., Royer, D. L., & Lunt, D. J. (2017). Future climate forcing potentially without precedent in the last 420 million years. Nature Communications, 8(1), 14845.

Fox, G. (1676). Gospel family-order being a short discourse concerning the ordering of families, both of whites, blacks, and Indians. Text Creation Partnership.

Frackowiak, T., Oleszkiewicz, A., Butovskaya, M., Groyecka, A., Karwowski, M., Kowal, M., & Sorokowski, P. (2020). Subjective Happiness Among Polish and Hadza People. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1173.

Francis-Devine, B. (2021). Average earnings by age and region [Report]. UK House of Commons.

Fraser, C. (2020). Mohism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2020). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

French, B., Funamoto, S., Sugiyama, H., Sakata, R., Cologne, J., Cullings, H. M., Mabuchi, K., & Preston, D. L. (2018). Population Density in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Before the Bombings in 1945: Its Measurement and Impact on Radiation Risk Estimates in the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(8), 1623–1629.

Friedman, B. M. (2005). The moral consequences of economic growth. Knopf.

Friend, T., Kinsley, M., & Packer, G. (2017, March 27). Silicon Valley’s Quest to Live Forever. The New Yorker. The New Yorker

Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2021a). Cyprinus carpio, Common carp [Database]. FishBase.

Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2021b). Silurus glanis, Wels catfish [Database]. FishBase.

Fry, D. P. (Ed.). (2013). War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford University Press.

Fry, M. (2013, August 4). National Geographic, Korea, and the 38th Parallel. National Geographic.

Fry, R. (2019, October 1). The number of people in the average U.S. household is going up for the first time in over 160 years [Web Page]. Pew Research Center.

Funk, C., Tyson, A., Kennedy, B., & Johnson, C. (2020). Biotechnology Research Viewed With Caution Globally, but Most Support Gene Editing for Babies To Treat Disease [Report]. Pew Research Center.

Furmanski, M. (2014, March 31). Threatened pandemics and laboratory escapes: Self-fulfilling prophecies [Blog]. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Future of Life Institute. (n.d.). Accidental Nuclear War: A Timeline of Close Calls [Web Page]. Future of Life Institute. Retrieved November 17, 2021, from

Gabriel, I. (2020). Artificial Intelligence, Values, and Alignment. Minds and Machines, 30(3), 411–437.

Gaddis, J. L. (1986). The Long Peace: Elements of Stability in the Postwar International System. International Security, 10(4), 99.

Gallup. (2018). 2018 World’s Most Generous Countries Report [Report]. Gallup, Inc.

Galor, O., & Moav, O. (2005). Natural Selection and the Evolution of Life Expectancy. Minerva Center for Economic Growth Paper No. 02-05.

Galor, O., & Weil, D. N. (2000). Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and Beyond. American Economic Review, 90(4), 806–828.

Galway-Witham, J., & Stringer, C. (2018). How did Homo sapiens evolve? Science, 360(6395), 1296–1298.

Gapminder. (2021). Gapminder Tools—Number of people by income [Web Page]. Gapminder.$chart-type=mountain&url=v1

Garcés, L. (2019). Grilled: Turning adversaries into allies to change the chicken industry. Bloomsbury Sigma.

Garfinkel, B. (2020, September 2). Does Economic History Point Toward a Singularity? [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Gat, A. (2013). Is war declining – and why? Journal of Peace Research, 50(2), 149–157.

Gatys, L. A., Ecker, A. S., & Bethge, M. (2016). Image Style Transfer Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2414–2423.

Geiger, T. (2018). Continuous national gross domestic product (GDP) time series for 195 countries: Past observations (1850–2005) harmonized with future projections according to the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (2006–2100). Earth System Science Data, 10(2), 847–856.

George, A. R. (Ed.). (2003). The epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Sumerian (A. R. George, Trans.). Penguin Books.

Geoscience Australia. (2016, December 31). Black Coal [Web Page]. Geoscience Australia.

Gerbner, K. (2007). “We are against the traffik of men-body”: The Germantown Quaker Protest of 1688 and the origins of american abolitionism. Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, 74(2), 149–172.

Gershoff, E. T. (2017). School corporal punishment in global perspective: Prevalence, outcomes, and efforts at intervention. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(sup1), 224–239.

Gibb, H. A. R. (1982). Studies on the Civilization of Islam. In Studies on the Civilization of Islam. Princeton University Press.

Gillingham, J. (2014, July 30). French chivalry in twelfth-century Britain? The Historian, 122.

Glad, B. (2002). Why Tyrants Go Too Far: Malignant Narcissism and Absolute Power. Political Psychology, 23(1), 1–2.

Gladstone, M. (2015, February 9). Let Me Tell Y’all A Little Bit About the Mohists… [Blog]. Tor.Com.

Goitom, H. (2012, February 14). Abolition of Slavery in Ethiopia [Blog]. In Custodia Legis, Library of Congress.

Gokhale, V. (2021). The Road from Galwan: The Future of India-China Relations [Working Paper]. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Goldblatt, C., & Watson, A. J. (2012). The runaway greenhouse: Implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 370(1974), 4197–4216.

Goldin, P. R. (2011). Confucianism. Routledge.

Goldstone, J. A. (2002). Efflorescences and Economic Growth in World History: Rethinking the “Rise of the West” and the Industrial Revolution. Journal of World History, 13(2), 323–389.

Good, I. J. (1966). Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. In Advances in Computers (Vol. 6, pp. 31–88). Elsevier.

Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., & Courville, A. (2016). Deep learning. The MIT Press.

Gordon, R. J. (2016). The rise and fall of American growth: The U.S. standard of living since the Civil War. Princeton University Press.

Gould, S. J. (1989). Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history (1st ed). W. W. Norton & Co.

Grace, K. (2013). Algorithmic Progress in Six Domains [Technical report 2013-3]. Machine Intelligence Research Institute.

Grace, K., Salvatier, J., Dafoe, A., Zhang, B., & Evans, O. (2018). When Will AI Exceed Human Performance? Evidence from AI Experts. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 62, 729–754.

Gramlich, J. (2019, July 10). For World Population Day, a look at the countries with the biggest projected gains – and losses – by 2100 [Web Page]. Pew Research Center.

Greaves, H. (2016). XIV—Cluelessness. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 116(3), 311–339.

Greaves, H. (2017). Population axiology: Population Axiology. Philosophy Compass, 12(11), e12442.

Greaves, H., & MacAskill, W. (2021). The case for strong longtermism [GPI Working Paper No . 5-2021]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

Greaves, H., & Ord, T. (2017). Moral Uncertainty About Population Axiology. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy, 12(2), 135–167.

Green, D., & McClellan, O. (2020). Turnout Nation: A Pilot Experiment Evaluating a Get-Out-The-Vote “Supertreatment” [Report]. Department of Political Science, Columbia University.

Green, N. (Ed.). (2016). Afghanistan’s Islam: From Conversion to the Taliban. University of California Press.

Griese, N. L. (2010, September 7). The Bible vs. Mao: A “Best Guess” of the Top 25 Bestselling Books of All Time [Web Page]. Publishing Perspectives.

Groff, Z., & Ng, Y.-K. (2019). Does suffering dominate enjoyment in the animal kingdom? An update to welfare biology. Biology & Philosophy, 34(4), 40.

Grundmann, S., Trabert, D., Fehre, K., Strenger, N., Pier, A., Kaiser, L., Kircher, M., Weller, M., Eckart, S., Schmidt, L. Ph. H., Trinter, F., Jahnke, T., Schöffler, M. S., & Dörner, R. (2020). Zeptosecond birth time delay in molecular photoionization. Science, 370(6514), 339–341.

Guardian. (2009, April 28). Obituary: Jack good. The Guardian.

Guardian. (2012, November 6). President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan. The Guardian.

Guardian. (2020, June 17). Soldiers fell to their deaths as India and China’s troops fought with rocks. The Guardian.

Guinness World Records. (2021). Best-selling book [Web Page]. Guinness World Records.

Gupta, P. K., Balyan, H. S., Gahlaut, V., Saripalli, G., Pal, B., Basnet, B. R., & Joshi, A. K. (2019). Hybrid wheat: Past, present and future. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 132(9), 2463–2483.

Gutman, H. G. (1975). Slavery and the numbers game: A critique of Time on the cross. University of Illinois Press.

Haines, T., & Chambers, P. (2006). The complete guide to prehistoric life. Firefly Books.

Haldane, J. B. S. (1927). The Last Judgment. In Possible Worlds and Other Essays. Chatto & Windus.

Hallett, N. (2007). China and Antislavery. In P. P. Hinks, J. R. McKivigan, & R. O. Williams (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (Vol. 1–2). Greenwood Press.

Halstead, J. (2018a). Climate Change Cause Area Report [Report]. Founders Pledge.

Hamilton, L. H., Scowcroft, B., Ayers, M., Carnesale, A., Eisenhower, S., Lash, J., Meserve, R., Peterson, P., Sharp, P., Bailey, V., Domenici, P., Hagel, C., Macfarlane, A., Moniz, E., & Rowe, J. (2012). Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future [Report]. US Department of Energy.

Hancocks, P. (2014, October 20). N. Korea: Doctor reveals leader’s quest for longevity. CNN.

Hanley, R. (2019). Beyond Slavery and Abolition: Black British Writing, c.1770–1830. Cambridge University Press.

Hansard. (1974). Smallpox, House of Commons Debate 18 June 1974, vol 875 cc97-9W. UK Parliament.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Russell, G., & Kharecha, P. (2013). Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 371(2001), 20120294.

Hanson, R. (1998). Must Early Life Be Easy? The Rhythm of Major Evolutionary Transitions [Unpublished Manuscript]. Department of Economics, George Mason University.

Hanson, R. (2000). Long-Term Growth As A Sequence of Exponential Modes [Working Paper]. Department of Economics, George Mason University.

Hanson, R. (2009, September 21). Limits To Growth [Blog]. Overcoming Bias.

Hanson, R. (2016). The age of em: Work, love, and life when robots rule the Earth (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.

Hanson, R. (2020, September 22). Overcoming Bias: The World Forager Elite [Blog]. Overcoming Bias.

Hanson, R., Martin, D., McCarter, C., & Paulson, J. (2021). If Loud Aliens Explain Human Earliness, Quiet Aliens Are Also Rare. ArXiv:2102.01522 [Physics, q-Bio].

Harper, K. (2011). Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275–425. Cambridge University Press.

Harris, A. (2008). What Spaceguard did. Nature, 453(7199), 1178–1179.

Harris, A., & Chodas, P. (2021). The population of near-earth asteroids revisited and updated. Icarus, 365, 114452.

Harris, S. H. (2002). Factories of death: Japanese biological warfare, 1932-1945, and the American cover-up (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Hart, B. W. (2018). Hitler’s American friends: The Third Reich’s supporters in the United States (1st ed.). St. Martin’s Press.

Hasse, D. N. (2021). Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Hausfather, Z. (2019, February 25). Extreme CO2 levels could trigger clouds ‘tipping point’ and 8C of global warming [Web Page]. Carbon Brief.

Hausfather, Z. (2020, December 9). UNEP: Net-zero pledges provide an ‘opening’ to close growing emissions ‘gap’ [Web Page]. Carbon Brief.

Hausfather, Z. (2021a). Flattening the Curve of Future Emissions [Web Page]. The Breakthrough Institute.

Hausfather, Z. (2021b). Global CO2 emissions have been flat for a decade, new data reveals [Web Page]. Carbon Brief.

Hausfather, Z., & Peters, G. P. (2020). Emissions – the ‘business as usual’ story is misleading. Nature, 577(7792), 618–620.

Haybron, D. M. (2008). The pursuit of unhappiness: The elusive psychology of well-being. Oxford University Press.

Haynes, G. (2018). The Evidence for Human Agency in the Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions. In D. Dellasala & M. Goldstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene (pp. 219–226). Elsevier.

Heath, M. J., & Doyle, L. R. (2009). Circumstellar Habitable Zones to Ecodynamic Domains: A Preliminary Review and Suggested Future Directions. ArXiv:0912.2482 [Astro-Ph].

Heim, L. (2021, September 23). What is Compute? [Blog]. LessWrong.

Helfand, I., Forrow, L., McCally, M., & Musil, R. K. (2002). Projected U.S. casualties and destruction of U.S. medical services from attacks by Russian nuclear forces. Medicine & Global Survival, 7(2), 68–76.

Helliwell, J. F., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (Eds.). (2017). World Happiness Report 2017. Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

Helliwell, J. F., Layard, R., Sachs, J., De Neve, J.-E., Aknin, L. B., & Wang, S. (Eds.). (2021). World Happiness Report 2021. Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

Henrich, J. (2004). Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 53(1), 3–35.

Henrich, J. (2018). The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter. Princeton University Press.

Herculano-Houzel, S. (2016). The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable. The MIT Press.

Herculano-Houzel, S., Catania, K., Manger, P. R., & Kaas, J. H. (2015). Mammalian Brains Are Made of These: A Dataset of the Numbers and Densities of Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cells in the Brain of Glires, Primates, Scandentia, Eulipotyphlans, Afrotherians and Artiodactyls, and Their Relationship with Body Mass. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 86(3–4), 145–163.

Hernandez, D., & Brown, T. (2020, May 5). AI and Efficiency [Web Page]. OpenAI.

Hieatt, A. K., Hieatt, C. W., & Prescott, A. L. (1991). When Did Shakespeare Write “Sonnets 1609?” Studies in Philology, 88(1), 69–109.

Higman, B. W. (2011). Demography and Family Structures. In D. Eltis & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 3, pp. 479–512). Cambridge University Press.

Hiroshima Convention and Visitors Bureau. (n.d.). Former Bank of Japan Hiroshima Branch [Web Page]. Explore HIROSHIMA. Retrieved November 19, 2021, from

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. (n.d.). 本館展示品を見る [Human Shadow in Stone] [Web Page]. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. Retrieved November 19, 2021, from

Hochschild, A. (2005). Bury the chains: Prophets and rebels in the fight to free an empire’s slaves. Houghton Mifflin.

Hoffman, D. (2013). The dead hand: The untold story of the cold war arms race and its dangerous legacy. Anchor Books.

Holmes, J., & Maurer, J. (2016, May 3). Don’t Exile Thucydides from the War Colleges. The National Interest.

Horace. (2004). Odes (N. Rudd, Trans.). Harvard University Press. (Original work published c. 23 BC)

Hornick, N. S. (1975). Anthony Benezet and the Africans’ School: Toward a Theory of Full Equality. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 99(4), 399–421.

Houde, E. D. (2002). Chapter 3 Mortality. In L. A. Fuiman & R. G. Werner (Eds.), Fishery Science: The Unique Contributions of Early Life Stages. Blackwell Science.

Hsiang, S. M., Burke, M., & Miguel, E. (2013). Quantifying the Influence of Climate on Human Conflict. Science, 341(6151), 1235367.

Huang, J., Tian, C., Xing, L., Bian, Z., & Miao, X. (2017). Green and Sustainable Mining: Underground Coal Mine Fully Mechanized Solid Dense Stowing-Mining Method. Sustainability, 9(8), 1418.

Hubinger, E. (2020, November 9). Clarifying inner alignment terminology [Blog]. LessWrong.

Hublin, J.-J., Ben-Ncer, A., Bailey, S. E., Freidline, S. E., Neubauer, S., Skinner, M. M., Bergmann, I., Le Cabec, A., Benazzi, S., Harvati, K., & Gunz, P. (2017). New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens. Nature, 546(7657), 289–292.

Huemer, M. (2008). In Defence of Repugnance. Mind, 117(468), 899–933.

Huemer, M. (2016). A liberal realist answer to debunking skeptics: The empirical case for realism. Philosophical Studies, 173(7), 1983–2010.

Human Security Project. (2013). Human Security Report 2013: The Decline in Global Violence: Evidence, Explanation and Contestation [Report]. Human Security Press.

Humane Society of the United States. (2009). An HSUS Report: The Welfare of Animals in the Meat, Egg, and Dairy Industries [Report]. Humane Society of the United States.

Humane Society of the United States. (2013). An HSUS Report: The Welfare of Animals in the Chicken Industry [Report]. Humane Society of the United States.

Hunt, P. (2010). Slavery. In M. Gagarin (Ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.

Hurka, T. (2021). Moore’s Moral Philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Hutton, E. L. (2001). Xunzi. In P. J. Ivanhoe & B. W. V. Norden (Eds.), Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy (2nd ed., pp. 255–304). Hackett Publishing.

IEA. (2019). World Energy Outlook 2019 [Report]. International Energy Agency.

IEA. (2020a). World Energy Outlook 2020 [Report]. International Energy Agency.

IEA. (2020b). Global annual change in real gross domestic product (GDP), 1900-2020 [Web Page]. International Energy Agency.

IFLA. (2021). IFLA Library Map of the World [Database]. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions Library Map of the World.

Inglehart, C., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, L., Diez-Medrano, J., Lagos, M., Norris, P., Ponarin, E., & Puranen, B. (Eds.). (2014). World values survey: Round six—Country-pooled datafile version. JD Systems Institute.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2015). Censo de Población y Vivienda 2012: Bolivia. Instituto Nacional de Estadística.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. (2018). Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico 2017. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. (2012). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos.

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. (2018). Síntesis de Resultados: Censo 2017. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas.

Ionescu, C., Baracu, T., Vlad, G.-E., Necula, H., & Badea, A. (2015). The historical evolution of the energy efficient buildings. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49, 243–253.

IPCC (Ed.). (2014a). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press.

IPCC (Ed.). (2014b). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Cambridge University Press.

IPCC (Ed.). (2021). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press.

IRENA. (2020). Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2019 [Report]. International Renewable Energy Agency.

IRENA. (2021). Data & Statistics [Dataset]. International Renewable Energy Agency.

Isaacson, W. (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American life. Simon & Schuster.

Isaak, A. (2020, February 23). The ultra-rich are investing in companies trying to reverse aging. Is it going to work? CNBC.

Istrate, E., & Nadeau, C. A. (2012). Global Metro Monitor 2012: Slowdown, Recovery, and Interdependence [Report]. Brookings Institution.

Jackson, M. D., Chae, S. R., Mulcahy, S. R., Meral, C., Taylor, R., Li, P., Emwas, A.-H., Moon, J., Yoon, S., Vola, G., Wenk, H.-R., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2013). Unlocking the secrets of Al-tobermorite in Roman seawater concrete. American Mineralogist, 98(10), 1669–1687.

Jarvis, S., Deschenes, O., & Jha, A. (2019). The Private and External Costs of Germany’s Nuclear Phase-Out [Working Paper 26598]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jgalt. (2019, January 14). World War Three before 2050 [Web Page]. Metaculus.

Johansson, R., Carlbring, P., Heedman, Å., Paxling, B., & Andersson, G. (2013). Depression, anxiety and their comorbidity in the Swedish general population: Point prevalence and the effect on health-related quality of life. PeerJ, 1, e98.

Joly, F. D. (2007). Classical Rome and Antislavery. In P. P. Hinks, J. R. McKivigan, & R. O. Williams (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (Vol. 1–2). Greenwood Press.

Jones, B., & Summers, L. (2020). A Calculation of the Social Returns to Innovation [NBER Working Paper 27863]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jones, C. (1998). Introduction to economic growth (1st ed). W.W. Norton.

Jones, C. (2001). Was an Industrial Revolution Inevitable? Economic Growth Over the Very Long Run. The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, 1(2).

Jones, C. (2005). Growth and Ideas. In Handbook of Economic Growth (Vol. 1, pp. 1063–1111). Elsevier.

Jones, C. (2020). The End of Economic Growth? Unintended Consequences of a Declining Population [NBER Working Paper 26651]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jones, C. (2021). The Past and Future of Economic Growth: A Semi-Endogenous Perspective [NBER Working Paper 29126]. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jonsen, A. R., & Toulmin, S. E. (1989). The abuse of casuistry: A history of moral reasoning. University of California Press.

Juan, W., Yamini, S., & Britten, P. (2015). Food Intake Patterns of Self-identified Vegetarians Among the U.S. Population, 2007-2010. Procedia Food Science, 4, 86–93.

Kaasa, A., & Minkov, M. (2020). Are the World’s National Cultures Becoming More Similar? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 51(7–8), 531–550.

Kadam, A., & Deshmukh, R. (2020, February). Kosher Food Market Size, Share & Value | Industry Forecast by 2026 [Report]. Allied Market Research.

Kaempffert, W. (1956, October 28). Warmer Climate on the Earth May Be Due To More Carbon Dioxide in the Air. The New York Times.

Kahan, A. (1973). Notes on Serfdom in Western and Eastern Europe. The Journal of Economic History, 33(1), 86–99.

kai1998. (2016). When people think about travelling to the past, they worry… [Web Page]. Reddit.

Kaldor, N. (1957). A Model of Economic Growth. The Economic Journal, 67(268), 591.

Kaneda, T., & Haub, C. (2021, May 18). How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? [Web Page]. Population Reference Bureau.

Kanigel, R. (2022). Diversity Style Guide [Web Page]. Diversity Style Guide.

Kant, I. (1912). Von den verschiedenen Racen der Menschen. In Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Ed.), Kant’s gesammelte Schriften (Vol. 2, pp. 427–443). Reimer.

Kant, I. (1913). Entwürfe zu dem Colleg über Anthropologie aus den 70er und 80er Jahren. In Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Ed.), Kant’s gesammelte Schriften: Vol. 15.2 (pp. 655–899). Reimer.

Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., & Hurtado, A. M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 9(4), 156–185.<156::AID-EVAN5>3.0.CO;2-7

Kaplan, J. O., Krumhardt, K. M., & Zimmermann, N. (2009). The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(27–28), 3016–3034.

Karnofsky, H. (2016, May 6). Some Background on Our Views Regarding Advanced Artificial Intelligence [Blog]. Open Philanthropy.

Karnofsky, H. (2021a). My current impressions on career choice for longtermists [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Karnofsky, H. (2021b). This Can’t Go On [Blog]. Cold Takes.

Karnofsky, H. (2021c). More on “multiple world-size economies per atom” [Blog]. Cold Takes.

Karnofsky, H. (2021d). Forecasting transformative AI: The “biological anchors” method in a nutshell [Web Page]. Cold Takes.

Karnofsky, H. (2021e). Was life better in hunter-gatherer times? [Blog]. Cold Takes.

Kaufmann, C. D., & Pape, R. A. (1999). Explaining Costly International Moral Action: Britain’s Sixty-year Campaign Against the Atlantic Slave Trade. International Organization, 53(4), 631–668.

Kaufmann, E. P. (2010). Shall the religious inherit the earth? Demography and politics in the twenty-first century. Profile.

Kavlak, G., McNerney, J., & Trancik, J. E. (2018). Evaluating the causes of cost reduction in photovoltaic modules. Energy Policy, 123, 700–710.

Kelly, M. (2019). The Standard Errors of Persistence. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Kelly, M. (2020). Understanding Persistence [CEPR Discussion Paper 15246]. Center for Economic and Policy Research.

Kelly, R. L. (2013). The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers: The Foraging Spectrum. Cambridge University Press.

Kemp, L. (2019, February 18). Are we on the road to civilisation collapse? BBC Future.

Kennedy, W. J. (2007). Shakespeare and the development of English poetry. In P. Cheney (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry (1st ed., pp. 14–32). Cambridge University Press.

Kershaw, I. (2005). Making friends with Hitler: Lord Londonderry, the Nazis and the road to World War II. Penguin Books.

Killingsworth, M., Stewart, L., & Greene, J. (2020). How much of life is “worth living”? A measure of absolute happiness [Working Paper]. The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

King, D., Schrag, D., Dadi, Z., Ye, Q., & Ghosh, A. (2015). Climate change: A risk assessment [Report]. Centre for Policy Research, University of Cambridge.

Klein, M. A. (2014). Historical dictionary of slavery and abolition (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.

Kleingeld, P. (2007). Kant’s Second Thoughts on Race. The Philosophical Quarterly, 57(229), 573–592.

Kline, W. (2010). Eugenics in the United States. In A. Bashford & P. Levine (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. Oxford University Press.

Knight, F. W. (2000). The Haitian Revolution. The American Historical Review, 105(1), 103.

Knoll, A. H., & Nowak, M. A. (2017). The timetable of evolution. Science Advances, 3(5), e1603076.

Knowles, T. G., Kestin, S. C., Haslam, S. M., Brown, S. N., Green, L. E., Butterworth, A., Pope, S. J., Pfeiffer, D., & Nicol, C. J. (2008). Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention. PLoS ONE, 3(2), e1545.

Koch, P. L., & Barnosky, A. D. (2006). Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37(1), 215–250.

Kohn, L. (2000). Daoism in the Tang (618-907). In L. Kohn (Ed.), Daoism Handbook (pp. 339–383). BRILL.

Kokotajlo, D. (2018). Tiny Probabilities of Vast Utilities: A Problem for Long-Termism? [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Kramers, R. P. (1986). Chapter 14: The development of the Confucian schools. In D. Twitchett & M. Loewe (Eds.), The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 1, pp. 747–765). Cambridge University Press.

Kremer, M. (1993). Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), 681–716.

Kristensen, H. M., & Korda, M. (2018). Indian nuclear forces, 2018. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74(6), 361–366.

Kristensen, H. M., & Korda, M. (2019a). French nuclear forces, 2019. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75(1), 51–55.

Kristensen, H. M., & Korda, M. (2019b). Russian nuclear forces, 2019. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75(2), 73–84.

Kristensen, H. M., & Korda, M. (2019c). United States nuclear forces, 2019. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75(3), 122–134.

Kristensen, H. M., & Korda, M. (2019d). Chinese nuclear forces, 2019. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75(4), 171–178.

Kristensen, H. M., & Norris, R. S. (2011). British nuclear forces, 2011. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 67(5), 89–97.

Kristensen, H. M., & Norris, R. S. (2017). Worldwide deployments of nuclear weapons, 2017. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 73(5), 289–297.

Kristensen, H. M., Norris, R. S., & Diamond, J. (2018). Pakistani nuclear forces, 2018. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74(5), 348–358.

Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., & Hinton, G. E. (2012). Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems.

Kuru, A. T. (2019). Islam, Authoritarianism, and Underdevelopment: A Global and Historical Comparison (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Kuwajima, M. (2021). Survivors’ Stories: Satoko Sasaguchi, 90, Hiroshima—Conductor on “first streetcar” to run in aftermath of A-bombing [Web Page]. Hiroshima Peace Media Center.

Lafond, F., Bailey, A. G., Bakker, J. D., Rebois, D., Zadourian, R., McSharry, P., & Farmer, J. D. (2017). How well do experience curves predict technological progress? A method for making distributional forecasts. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 128, 104–117.

Lao Tzu. (2003). Dao De Jing: A Philosophical Translation (R. Ames & D. Hall, Trans.).

Larramendi, A. (2016). Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(3), 537–574.

Lawton, J. H., & May, R. M. (Eds.). (1995). Extinction rates. Oxford University Press.

Leahy, E., Lyons, S., & Tol, R. S. J. (2010). An estimate of the number of vegetarians in the world (ESRI Working Paper No. 340). The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).

Lecoutre, A., Negrevergne, B., & Yger, F. (2017). Recognizing Art Style Automatically in Painting with Deep Learning. Proceedings of the Ninth Asian Conference on Machine Learning, 327–342.

LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y., & Hinton, G. (2015). Deep learning. Nature, 521(7553), 436–444.

Lee, R. B. (1979). The !Kung San: Men, women, and work in a foraging society. Cambridge University Press.

Lee, R. B. (2018). Hunter-Gatherers and Human Evolution: New Light on Old Debates. Annual Review of Anthropology, 47(1), 513–531.

Leitenberg, M. (2005). Assessing the biological weapons and bioterrorism threat. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College.

Leitenberg, M., Zilinskas, R. A., & Kuhn, J. H. (2012). The Soviet biological weapons program: A history. Harvard University Press.

Lelieveld, J., Klingmüller, K., Pozzer, A., Burnett, R. T., Haines, A., & Ramanathan, V. (2019). Effects of fossil fuel and total anthropogenic emission removal on public health and climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(15), 7192–7197.

Lelieveld, J., Klingmüller, K., Pozzer, A., Pöschl, U., Fnais, M., Daiber, A., & Münzel, T. (2019). Cardiovascular disease burden from ambient air pollution in Europe reassessed using novel hazard ratio functions. European Heart Journal, 40(20), 1590–1596.

Lemnitzer, L. L. (1961). 35. Memorandum From the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Secretary of Defense McNamara. In L. J. Smith (Ed.), Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Volume X, Cuba, January 1961–September 1962. US Government Printing Office.

Lenman, J. (2000). Consequentialism and Cluelessness. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 29(4), 342–370.

Lenton, T. M., & von Bloh, W. (2001). Biotic feedback extends the life span of the biosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 28(9), 1715–1718.

Levi, S. C. (2002). Hindus Beyond the Hindu Kush: Indians in the Central Asian Slave Trade. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 12(3), 277–288.

Levinovitz, A. (2014, May 12). The mystery of go, the ancient game that computers still can’t win. Wired.

Levy, J. S., & Thompson, W. R. (2010). Causes of war. Wiley-Blackwell.

Lewis, G. (2018, April 18). The person-affecting value of existential risk reduction [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Lewiston Morning Tribune. (1957, February 25). De Forest Says Space Travel Is Impossible. Lewiston Morning Tribune.

Liebowitz, S. J., & Margolis, S. E. (1990). The Fable of the Keys. The Journal of Law and Economics, 33(1), 1–25.

Lifton, R. J., & Strozier, C. (2020, August 5). Hiroshima and COVID-19 [Blog]. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Lightner, D. L., & Ragan, A. M. (2005). Were African American Slaveholders Benevolent or Exploitative? A Quantitative Approach. The Journal of Southern History, 71(3), 535.

Little, L. (2010, October 21). How One Man Became a Serial Lottery Winner. ABC News.

Liu, P. R., & Raftery, A. E. (2021). Country-based rate of emissions reductions should increase by 80% beyond nationally determined contributions to meet the 2 °C target. Communications Earth & Environment, 2(1), 29.

Lloyd, M. D. (1998). Polybius and the Founding Fathers: The separation of powers.

Locard, H. (2005). State Violence in Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979) and Retribution (1979–2004). European Review of History: Revue Européenne d’histoire, 12(1), 121–143.

Long, J., Murphy, J., Carnegie, D., & Kapur, A. (2017). Loudspeakers Optional: A history of non-loudspeaker-based electroacoustic music. Organised Sound, 22(2), 195–205.

Lord, N. S., Ridgwell, A., Thorne, M. C., & Lunt, D. J. (2016). An impulse response function for the “long tail” of excess atmospheric CO2 in an Earth system model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30(1), 2–17.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. (2017). Where Did Life Come From? [Web Page]. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Losos, J. B. (2017). Improbable destinies: Fate, chance, and the future of evolution. Penguin UK.

Lotka, A. J. (1922). Natural Selection as a Physical Principle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 8(6), 151–154.

Lynas, M., Herter, J., Foss, A., Aborn, J., Partanen, R., Varrin, R., Jefferys, R., Pickering, J., Vysatova, R., Ingersoll, E., & Gogan, K. (n.d.). Missing Link to a Livable Climate: How Hydrogen-Enabled Synthetic Fuels Can Help Deliver the Paris Goals. LucidCatalyst and TerraPraxis.

Lyons, J. (2010). The house of wisdom: How the Arabs transformed Western civilization.

Lyons, O. (1980). An Iroquois perspective. In C. Vecsey & R. W. Venables (Eds.), American Indian environments: Ecological issues in native American history. Syracuse University Press.

Lyons, S. K., Miller, J. H., Fraser, D., Smith, F. A., Boyer, A., Lindsey, E., & Mychajliw, A. M. (2016). The changing role of mammal life histories in Late Quaternary extinction vulnerability on continents and islands. Biology Letters, 12(6), 20160342.

MacAskill, W. (2020). Are we living at the hinge of history? GPI Working Paper No. 12-2020.

MacAskill, W., Bykvist, K., & Ord, T. (2020). Moral Uncertainty. Oxford University Press.

Macer, D. (2012). Ethical Consequences of the Positive Views of Enhancement in Asia. Health Care Analysis, 20(4), 385–397.

MacFarquhar, L. (2011, August 29). How To Be Good. The New Yorker.

Mach, K. J., Kraan, C. M., Adger, W. N., Buhaug, H., Burke, M., Fearon, J. D., Field, C. B., Hendrix, C. S., Maystadt, J.-F., O’Loughlin, J., Roessler, P., Scheffran, J., Schultz, K. A., & von Uexkull, N. (2019). Climate as a risk factor for armed conflict. Nature, 571(7764), 193–197.

Machine Intelligence Research Institute. (n.d.). Artificial Intelligence @ MIRI [Web Page]. Machine Intelligence Research Institute. Retrieved November 29, 2021, from

Maddox, J. (1984). Nuclear winter not yet established. Nature, 308(5954), 11–11.

Magenta. (n.d.). [Web Page]. Magenta. Retrieved November 29, 2021, from

Makdisi, G. (1973). The Sunni Revival. In D. S. Richards (Ed.), Islamic civilisation, 950-1150 (pp. 155–168). Cassirer.

Malik, J. (1985). Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions [Report No. LA-8819]. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Manheim, D., & Lewis, G. (2021). High-risk human-caused pathogen exposure events from 1975-2016. F1000Research, 10, 752.

Manning, P. (1990). The Slave Trade: The Formal Demography of a Global System. Social Science History, 14(2), 255–279.

Markandya, A., Sampedro, J., Smith, S. J., Van Dingenen, R., Pizarro-Irizar, C., Arto, I., & González-Eguino, M. (2018). Health co-benefits from air pollution and mitigation costs of the Paris Agreement: A modelling study. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2(3), e126–e133.

Markandya, A., & Wilkinson, P. (2007). Electricity generation and health. The Lancet, 370(9591), 979–990.

Marlowe, F. (2010). The Hadza: Hunter-Gatherers of Tanzania. University of California Press.

Marois, G., Gietel-Basten, S., & Lutz, W. (2021). China’s low fertility may not hinder future prosperity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(40), e2108900118.

Marshall, M., Gurr, T. R., & Jaggers, K. (2013). Polity IV Project: Dataset Users’ Manual. Center for Systemic Peace.

Martin, S. (2014). The Cathars: The rise and fall of the great heresy. Oldcastle Books.

Martini, D., Dussex, N., Robertson, B. C., Gemmell, N. J., & Knapp, M. (2021). Evolution of the “world’s only alpine parrot”: Genomic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, behaviour and ecology? Molecular Ecology, mec.15978.

Mauboussin, A. (n.d.). Results [Web Page]. Probabilitysurvey.Com. Retrieved November 27, 2021, from

Mauboussin, A., & Mauboussin, M. J. (2018, July 3). If You Say Something Is “Likely,” How Likely Do People Think It Is? Harvard Business Review.

McCallum, M. L. (2015). Vertebrate biodiversity losses point to a sixth mass extinction. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24(10), 2497–2519.

McCandless, P. (2011). Slavery, Disease, and Suffering in the Southern Lowcountry. Cambridge University Press.

McCurry, J. (2016, April 18). Story of Cities #24: How Hiroshima Rose from the Ashes of Nuclear Destruction. The Guardian.

McKerracher, C. (2021). Electric Vehicle Outlook 2021—Executive summary [Report]. BloombergNEF.

McKibben, B. (2021, October 15). It’s Easy to Feel Pessimistic about the Climate. But We’ve Got Two Big Things on Our Side. The Guardian.

McLaughlin, P. A., & Lemaitre, R. (1997). Carcinization in the Anomura – fact or fiction? I. Evidence from adult morphology. Contributions to Zoology, 67(2), 79–123.

McMahan, J. (2017). Derek Parfit (1942-2017). Philosophy Now, 119.

Medvedev, Z. A., & Medvedev, R. A. (2006). The unknown Stalin (E. Dahrendorf, Trans.). I.B. Tauris.

MegaGrimer. (2017). When people think about travelling to the past, they worry… [Web Page]. Reddit.

Meltzer, D. J. (2015). Pleistocene Overkill and North American Mammalian Extinctions. Annual Review of Anthropology, 44(1), 33–53.

Meltzer, D. J. (2020). Overkill, glacial history, and the extinction of North America’s Ice Age megafauna. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(46), 28555–28563.

Menon, S. (2021, June 22). India Covid: What Are the Claims around the “free vaccine” Policy? BBC.

Menzel, R., & Giurfa, M. (2001). Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: The honeybee. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(2), 62–71.

Meselson, M., Guillemin, J., Hugh-Jones, M., Langmuir, A., Popova, I., Shelokov, A., & Yampolskaya, O. (1994). The Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak of 1979. Science, 266(5188), 1202–1208.

Metcalf, J. L., Turney, C., Barnett, R., Martin, F., Bray, S. C., Vilstrup, J. T., Orlando, L., Salas-Gismondi, R., Loponte, D., Medina, M., De Nigris, M., Civalero, T., Fernández, P. M., Gasco, A., Duran, V., Seymour, K. L., Otaola, C., Gil, A., Paunero, R., … Cooper, A. (2016). Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation. Science Advances, 2(6), e1501682.

Michaelis, M., Doerr, H. W., & Cinatl, J. (2009). Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: Another pandemic knocking at the door. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 198(3), 175–183.

Miers, S. (2005). Slavery and the slave trade in Saudi Arabia and the Arab states on the Persian Gulf, 1921–63. In G. Campbell (Ed.), Abolition and Its Aftermath in the Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. Routledge.

Miguel, E., & Roland, G. (2011). The long-run impact of bombing Vietnam. Journal of Development Economics, 96(1), 1–15.

Miller, N. L. (2017). Why Nuclear Energy Programs Rarely Lead to Proliferation. International Security, 42(2), 40–77.

Miller, S. (2014). The public impact of impacts: How the media play in the mass extinction debates. In G. Keller & A. C. Kerr, Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geological Society of America.

Miranda, L. (2021, August 8). The Illustrated VQGAN [Web Page]. Lj Miranda.

Moderna. (2021). Moderna’s Work on our COVID-19 Vaccine [Web Page]. Moderna.

Mogensen, A. L. (2020). Moral demands and the far future. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 103(3), 567–585.

Mogensen, A. L. (2021). Maximal Cluelessness. The Philosophical Quarterly, 71(1), 141–162.

Mohr, S. H., Wang, J., Ellem, G., Ward, J., & Giurco, D. (2015). Projection of world fossil fuels by country. Fuel, 141, 120–135.

Mokyr, J. (2016). A culture of growth: The origins of the modern economy (1st ed.). Princeton University Press.

Molina, M. J., & Rowland, F. S. (1974). Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone. Nature, 249(5460), 810–812.

Mood, A., & Brooke, P. (2012). Estimating the Number of Farmed Fish Killed in Global Aquaculture Each Year [Report]. FishCount.

Mood, A., & Brooke, P. (2019). Estimated numbers of individuals in global aquaculture production (FAO) of fish species (2017) [Dataset]. FishCount.

Moore, G. E. (1965). Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics, 38(8).

Moorjani, P., Amorim, C. E. G., Arndt, P. F., & Przeworski, M. (2016). Variation in the molecular clock of primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(38), 10607–10612.

Morley, N. (2002). Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 BC–AD 200 (1st paperback). Cambridge University Press.

Morris, I. (2004). Economic Growth in Ancient Greece. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 160(4), 709.

Morris, I. (2010). Why the West rules—For now: The patterns of history, and what they reveal about the future (1st ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Morris, I. (2013). The measure of civilization: How social development decides the fate of nations. Princeton University Press.

Mothé, D., dos Santos Avilla, L., Asevedo, L., Borges-Silva, L., Rosas, M., Labarca-Encina, R., Souberlich, R., Soibelzon, E., Roman-Carrion, J. L., Ríos, S. D., Rincon, A. D., de Oliveira, G. C., & Lopes, R. P. (2017). Sixty years after ‘The mastodonts of Brazil’: The state of the art of South American proboscideans (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae). Quaternary International, 443, 52–64.

Mothé, D., Ferretti, M. P., & Avilla, L. S. (2019). Running Over the Same Old Ground: Stegomastodon Never Roamed South America. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 26(2), 165–177.

Muehlhauser, L. (2021, July 16). A personal take on longtermist AI governance [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Muehlhauser, L. (2016a). What Do We Know about AI Timelines? [Web Page]. Open Philanthropy.

Muehlhauser, L. (2016b). What should we learn from past AI forecasts? [Web Page]. Open Philanthropy.

Mueller, J. (2009). War Has Almost Ceased to Exist: An Assessment. Political Science Quarterly, 124(2), 297–321.

Mukherjee, S., & Pahari, D. P. (2019). Underground and Opencast Coal Mining Methods in India: A Comparative Assessment. Space and Culture, India, 7(1), 39–55.

Mulcahy, N. J., & Call, J. (2006). Apes Save Tools for Future Use. Science, 312(5776), 1038–1040.

Müller, C. C. (2021). Qin Shi Huang. In Encyclopedia Britannica.

Müller, V. C., & Bostrom, N. (2016). Future Progress in Artificial Intelligence: A Survey of Expert Opinion. In V. C. Müller (Ed.), Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence (Vol. 376, pp. 555–572). Springer International Publishing.

Mummert, A., Esche, E., Robinson, J., & Armelagos, G. J. (2011). Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: Evidence from the bioarchaeological record. Economics & Human Biology, 9(3), 284–301.

Murphy, T. W. (2021). Energy and Human Ambitions on a Finite Planet. eScholarship.

Nakajima, K., Desselberger, U., & Palese, P. (1978). Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950. Nature, 274(5669), 334–339.

Narveson, J. (1973). Moral Problems of Population. Monist, 57(1), 62–86.

NASA. (2019). Two Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impact Sites on Jupiter (1994) [Web Page]. NASA Solar System Exploration.

NASA. (2021). P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 [Web Page]. NASA Solar System Exploration.

National Agricultural Statistics Service. (2021). USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service Homepage [Database]. US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

National Association of Black Journalists. (2020, June). NABJ Style Guide [Web Page]. National Association of Black Journalists.

National Geographic Society. (2018). The Colosseum. In National Geographic Resource Library.

National Geographic Society. (2019). Hadza. In National Geographic Resource Library. National Geographic Society.

National Geographic Society. (2021, September 17). The Kingdom of Aksum [Web Page]. National Geographic Society.

National Research Council. (2011). Protecting the Frontline in Biodefense Research: The Special Immunizations Program (p. 13112). National Academies Press.

National Science Foundation. (2020). Tomato’s wild ancestor is a genomic reservoir for plant breeders [Web Page]. National Science Foundation.

Needham, J. (1997). Science and civilisation in China. Vol. 5 Chemistry and chemical technology, Pt. 3: Spagyrical discovery and invention (Vol. 5). Cambridge University Press.

Neilson, R. (2005). Introduction. In R. Neilson (Ed.), The Rise of Mormonism (pp. 1–20). Columbia University Press.

New York Times. (1956, October 28). TimesMachine: Sunday October 28, 1956. The New York Times.

New York Times. (2018, February 6). How South Korea Left the North Behind. The New York Times.

Newberry, T. (2021). How cost-effective are efforts to detect near-Earth-objects? [GPI Technical Report No . T1-2021]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

NFHS. (2021). India Fact Sheet—National Family Health Survey 5 (NFHS-5). International Institute for Population Sciences, Deemed University.

Ng, Y.-K. (2008). Happiness Studies: Ways to Improve Comparability and Some Public Policy Implications. Economic Record, 84(265), 253–266.

Ngo, R. (2020, September 28). AGI safety from first principles [Blog]. AI Alignment Forum.

Nielsen. (2016). What’s in our food and on our mind: Ingredient and dining-out trends around the world [Report]. Nielsen.

Nilsson, N. J. (2009). The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements. Cambridge University Press.

Nordhaus, W. D. (2021). Are We Approaching an Economic Singularity? Information Technology and the Future of Economic Growth. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 13(1), 299–332.

Norwood, F. B., & Lusk, J. L. (2011). Compassion, by the Pound: The Economics of Farm Animal Welfare. Oxford University Press.

NPR. (2019, April 16). How Climate Change Threatens Humanity [Podcast]. NPR.

Núñez, R., Cooperrider, K., Doan, D., & Wassmann, J. (2012). Contours of time: Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition, 124(1), 25–35.

Núñez, R. E., & Sweetser, E. (2006). With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time. Cognitive Science, 30(3), 401–450.

Nunn, N. (2008). The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123(1), 139–176.

Nunn, N., & Qian, N. (2010). The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2), 163–188.

Nunn, N., & Wantchekon, L. (2011). The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa. American Economic Review, 101(7), 3221–3252.

Nylan, M. (2001). The five “Confucian” classics. Yale University Press.

OECD. (2020). The OECD tax-benefit Model for Hungary. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

OECD. (2021a). Agricultural output—Meat consumption—OECD Data [Dataset]. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.

OECD. (2021b). Main Science and Technology Indicators [Dataset]. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.

Oliveira, L. C., Kinoshita, A., Barreto, A. M. F., Figueiredo, A. M., Silva, J. L. L., & Baffa, O. (2010). ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 249, 012062.

Olkowicz, S., Kocourek, M., Lučan, R. K., Porteš, M., Fitch, W. T., Herculano-Houzel, S., & Němec, P. (2016). Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(26), 7255–7260.

O’Malley-James, J. T., Greaves, J. S., Raven, J. A., & Cockell, C. S. (2013). Swansong biospheres: Refuges for life and novel microbial biospheres on terrestrial planets near the end of their habitable lifetimes. International Journal of Astrobiology, 12(2), 99–112.

Omohundro, S. M. (2008). The Basic AI Drives. Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Artificial General Intelligence 2008, 483–492.

O’Neill, A. (2021a). United States: Life expectancy 1860-2020 [Web Page]. Statista.

O’Neill, A. (2021b). United States: Black and slave population 1790-1880 [Web Page]. Statista.

Open Philanthropy. (n.d.). Focus Areas [Web Page]. Open Philanthropy. Retrieved December 16, 2021, from

Open Philanthropy. (2021). Grants Database [Dataset]. Open Philanthropy.

OpenAI. (2021a). About OpenAI [Web Page]. OpenAI.

OpenAI. (2021b). CLIP: Connecting Text and Images [Web Page]. OpenAI.

OpenAI, Berner, C., Brockman, G., Chan, B., Cheung, V., Dębiak, P., Dennison, C., Farhi, D., Fischer, Q., Hashme, S., Hesse, C., Józefowicz, R., Gray, S., Olsson, C., Pachocki, J., Petrov, M., Pinto, H. P. d O., Raiman, J., Salimans, T., … Zhang, S. (2019). Dota 2 with Large Scale Deep Reinforcement Learning. ArXiv:1912.06680 [Cs, Stat].

Ord, T. (n.d.). On Ranking Alternatives with Different Populations [Working Paper].

Ord, T. (2014). Overpopulation or Underpopulation? In I. Goldin (Ed.), Is the Planet Full? (pp. 46–60). Oxford University Press.

Ord, T. (2020). The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Ord, T. (2021). The Edges of Our Universe. ArXiv:2104.01191 [Gr-Qc, Physics:Hep-Th, Physics:Physics].

Orr, P. (2015, February 12). We change more than we expect (so keep your options open!) [Blog]. 80,000 Hours.

Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Roser, M. (2017). Happiness and Life Satisfaction [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Tzvetkova, S. (2017). Working women: Key facts and trends in female labor force participation [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Oswald, A. J., & Winkelmann, R. (2019). Lottery Wins and Satisfaction: Overturning Brickman in Modern Longitudinal Data on Germany. In M. Rojas (Ed.), The Economics of Happiness (pp. 57–84). Springer International Publishing.

Ouagrham-Gormley, S. B. (2014). Barriers to bioweapons: The challenges of expertise and organization for weapons development. Cornell University Press.

Our World in Data. (n.d.-a). GDP in British pounds [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (n.d.-c). Fertility rate: Children per woman [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2017a). Air pollution, London vs. Delhi [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2017b). World GDP over the last two millennia [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2018b). Youth mortality rate [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2019a). Historical world population: Comparison of different sources [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2019b). Land use over the long-term [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2019c). Life expectancy, 1880 to 2019 (United States) [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2019f). Population projection by the UN, China, 1950 to 2100 [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2019g). Population projection by the UN, India, 1950 to 2100 [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2019h). Solar PV module prices [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2020a). Air pollution deaths from fossil fuels [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2020c). Children per woman by GDP per capita [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2020d). GDP per capita [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2020f). Global primary energy consumption by source [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2020g). Number of animals slaughtered for meat [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2021a). Daily median income [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2021b). Female labor force participation rate vs. GDP per capita [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2021c). Female labor force participation rates by national per capita income [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Our World in Data. (2021d). Self-reported Life Satisfaction vs GDP per capita [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Özkan, H., Brandolini, A., Schäfer-Pregl, R., & Salamini, F. (2002). AFLP Analysis of a Collection of Tetraploid Wheats Indicates the Origin of Emmer and Hard Wheat Domestication in Southeast Turkey. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19(10), 1797–1801.

PAGES. (2016). Interglacials of the last 800,000 years. Reviews of Geophysics, 54(1), 162–219.

Parfit, D. (1984). Reasons and Persons. Oxford University Press.

Parfit, D. (1986). Overpopulation and the Quality of Life. In P. Singer (Ed.), Applied Ethics (pp. 145–164). Oxford University Press.

Parfit, D. (2011). On What Matters: Volume Two. Oxford University Press.

Parker, G. (2008). Crisis and Catastrophe: The Global Crisis of the Seventeenth Century Reconsidered. The American Historical Review, 113(4), 1053–1079.

Patterson, O. (1982). Slavery and social death: A comparative study. Harvard University Press.

Peabody, S. (2014). French Emancipation. In S. Peabody, Atlantic History. Oxford University Press.

Peasgood, T., Mukuria, C., Karimi, M., & Brazier, J. (2019). Anchoring life satisfaction onto a QALY scale [Working Paper].

Penner, J. E. (1986). Uncertainties in the smoke source term for ‘nuclear winter’ studies. Nature, 324(6094), 222–226.

Pennington, K. (2018). Bartolomé de Las Casas. In R. Domingo & J. Martínez-Torrón (Eds.), Great Christian Jurists in Spanish History (1st ed., pp. 98–115). Cambridge University Press.

Perez, P. T., Cianzio, S. R., & Palmer, R. G. (2009). Evaluation of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] F1 Hybrids. Journal of Crop Improvement, 23(1), 1–18.

Perlich, P. S. (2016, January 8). Utah’s Fertility Rate is at Historic Low [Web Page]. Kem C. Gardner Policy Institute.

Perri, A. R., Mitchell, K. J., Mouton, A., Álvarez-Carretero, S., Hulme-Beaman, A., Haile, J., Jamieson, A., Meachen, J., Lin, A. T., Schubert, B. W., Ameen, C., Antipina, E. E., Bover, P., Brace, S., Carmagnini, A., Carøe, C., Samaniego Castruita, J. A., Chatters, J. C., Dobney, K., … Frantz, L. A. F. (2021). Dire wolves were the last of an ancient New World canid lineage. Nature, 591(7848), 87–91.

Perry, C., Eltis, D., Engerman, S. L., & Richardson, D. (2021). Slavery in the Medieval Millennium. In C. Perry, D. Eltis, S. L. Engerman, & D. Richardson (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1–24). Cambridge University Press.

Peterson, E. W. F. (2017). The Role of Population in Economic Growth. SAGE Open, 7(4), 215824401773609.

Pew Research. (n.d.). Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics [Web Page]. Pew Research Center. Retrieved December 4, 2021, from

Pew Research. (2014, November 13). Religion in Latin America [Web Page]. Pew Research Center.

Pew Research. (2015). The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050 [Report]. Pew Research Center.

Pindyck, R. S. (2013). Climate Change Policy: What Do the Models Tell Us? Journal of Economic Literature, 51(3), 860–872.

Pines, Y. (2018). Legalism in Chinese Philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Pinker, S. (2011). The Better Angels of Our Nature. Penguin.

Plato. (2010). Laws, Book VI. In B. Jowett (Trans.), Dialogues of Plato: Translated into English, with Analyses and Introduction (Vol. 4, pp. 267–300). Cambridge University Press.

Poli, B. M., Parisi, G., Scappini, F., & Zampacavallo, G. (2005). Fish welfare and quality as affected by pre-slaughter and slaughter management. Aquaculture International, 13(1–2), 29–49.

Polilov, A. A. (2008). Anatomy of the smallest coleoptera, featherwing beetles of the tribe nanosellini (Coleoptera, Ptiliidae), and limits of insect miniaturization. Entomological Review, 88(1), 26–33.

Politis, G. G., Messineo, P. G., Stafford, T. W., & Lindsey, E. L. (2019). Campo Laborde: A Late Pleistocene giant ground sloth kill and butchering site in the Pampas. Science Advances, 5(3), eaau4546.

Ponocny, I., Weismayer, Ch., Stross, B., & Dressler, S. G. (2016). Are Most People Happy? Exploring the Meaning of Subjective Well-Being Ratings. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(6), 2635–2653.

Popp, M., Schmidt, H., & Marotzke, J. (2016). Transition to a Moist Greenhouse with CO2 and solar forcing. Nature Communications, 7(1), 10627.

Prado, J. L., Martinez-Maza, C., & Alberdi, M. T. (2015). Megafauna extinction in South America: A new chronology for the Argentine Pampas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 425, 41–49.

Prainsack, B. (2006). ‘Negotiating Life’: The Regulation of Human Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cell Research in Israel. Social Studies of Science, 36(2), 173–205.

Pritchett, L. (2018). Alleviating Global Poverty: Labor Mobility, Direct Assistance, and Economic Growth. Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 479.

Proença, V., & Pereira, H. M. (2013). Comparing Extinction Rates: Past, Present, and Future. In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (pp. 167–176). Elsevier.

Prudhomme, C., Giuntoli, I., Robinson, E. L., Clark, D. B., Arnell, N. W., Dankers, R., Fekete, B. M., Franssen, W., Gerten, D., Gosling, S. N., Hagemann, S., Hannah, D. M., Kim, H., Masaki, Y., Satoh, Y., Stacke, T., Wada, Y., & Wisser, D. (2014). Hydrological droughts in the 21st century, hotspots and uncertainties from a global multimodel ensemble experiment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(9), 3262–3267.

pseudoerasmus. (2015a, April 2). Economic Growth in Ancient Greece [Blog]. Pseudoerasmus.

pseudoerasmus. (2015b, April 4). Ian Morris’s calculations about the ancient Greek economy [Blog]. Pseudoerasmus.

Pulleyblank, E. G. (1958). The Origins and Nature of Chattel Slavery in China. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1(2), 185.

Quiggin, J. (2008). Uncertainty and Climate Change Policy. Economic Analysis and Policy, 38(2), 203–210.

Quoidbach, J., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2013). The End of History Illusion. Science, 339(6115), 96–98.

Radford, A., Kim, J. W., Hallacy, C., Ramesh, A., Goh, G., Agarwal, S., Sastry, G., Askell, A., Mishkin, P., Clark, J., Krueger, G., & Sutskever, I. (2021). Learning Transferable Visual Models From Natural Language Supervision. Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning.

Ramesh, A., Pavlov, M., Goh, G., Gray, S., Voss, C., Radford, A., Chen, M., & Sutskever, I. (2021). Zero-Shot Text-to-Image Generation. In M. Meila & T. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning (Vol. 139, pp. 8821–8831). PMLR.

Ramirez, R. M., Kopparapu, R. K., Lindner, V., & Kasting, J. F. (2014). Can Increased Atmospheric CO2 Levels Trigger a Runaway Greenhouse? Astrobiology, 14(8), 714–731.

Rapsomanikis, G. (2015). The economic lives of smallholder farmers [Report]. Food and Agriculture Organization.

Ravanelli, M., Parcollet, T., & Bengio, Y. (2019). The Pytorch-kaldi Speech Recognition Toolkit. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 6465–6469.

Ray, G. (2018b). The funnel of human experience [Blog]. Eukaryote Writes Blog.

Ray, H. P. (2021). The Mauryan Empire. In P. F. Bang, C. A. Bayly, & W. Scheidel (Eds.), The Oxford World History of Empire (Vol. 2). Oxford University Press.

Redfern, A., Gould, M., Chege, M., Li, S., & Slotznick, W. (2019). Beneficiary preferences: Findings from Ghana and Kenya [Report]. IDinsight.

Rediker, M. (2017a). The fearless Benjamin Lay: The Quaker dwarf who became the first revolutionary abolitionist. Beacon Press.

Rediker, M. (2017b). The “Quaker Comet” Was the Greatest Abolitionist You’ve Never Heard Of. Smithsonian Magazine, September, 2017.

Rees, T. (2013). 1936. In S. A. Smith (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism. Oxford University Press.

Regalado, A. (2018, March 13). A startup is pitching a mind-uploading service that is “100 percent fatal.” MIT Technology Review.

Reid, J. N. (2017). The children of slaves in early Mesopotamian laws and edicts. Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale, 111(1), 9.

Reis, M. D., Gunnell, G. F., Barba-Montoya, J., Wilkins, A., Yang, Z., & Yoder, A. D. (2018). Using Phylogenomic Data to Explore the Effects of Relaxed Clocks and Calibration Strategies on Divergence Time Estimation: Primates as a Test Case. Systematic Biology, 67(4), 594–615.

Reisner, J., D’Angelo, G., Koo, E., Even, W., Hecht, M., Hunke, E., Comeau, D., Bos, R., & Cooley, J. (2018). Climate Impact of a Regional Nuclear Weapons Exchange: An Improved Assessment Based On Detailed Source Calculations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(5), 2752–2772.

Renner, S. S., Wu, S., Pérez-Escobar, O. A., Silber, M. V., Fei, Z., & Chomicki, G. (2021). A chromosome-level genome of a Kordofan melon illuminates the origin of domesticated watermelons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(23), e2101486118.

Revive and Restore. (n.d.). The Woolly Mammoth Revival [Web Page]. Revive & Restore. Retrieved November 27, 2021, from

Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R., & Bettinger, R. L. (2001). Was Agriculture Impossible during the Pleistocene but Mandatory during the Holocene? A Climate Change Hypothesis. American Antiquity, 66(3), 387–411.

Riley, J. C. (2005). Estimates of Regional and Global Life Expectancy, 1800-2001. Population and Development Review, 31(3), 537–543.

Riley, J. C. (2005b). Bibliography of Works Providing Estimates of Life Expectancy at Birth and Estimates of the Beginning Period of Health Transitions in Countries with a Population in 2000 of at Least 400,000. Indiana University.

Ritchie, H. (2019, October 7). How do CO2 emissions compare when we adjust for trade? [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H. (2020a). Death rates from energy production per TWh [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H. (2021). The price of batteries has declined by 97% in the last three decades [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2018a). Ozone Layer [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2018b). Plastic Pollution [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2019). Indoor Air Pollution [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2020a). CO2 and Greenhouse Gas Emissions [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2020b). Energy [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2021). Crop Yields [Dataset]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2021a). Biodiversity [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2021c). Forests and Deforestation [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Ritchie, J., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2017). The 1000 GtC coal question: Are cases of vastly expanded future coal combustion still plausible? Energy Economics, 65, 16–31.

Rival, L. M. (2016). Huaorani transformations in twenty-first-century Ecuador: Treks into the future of time. The University of Arizona Press.

Roberts, L., & Shearer, C. (2021, September 14). How world’s coal-power pipeline has shrunk by three-quarters [Web Page]. Carbon Brief.

Roberts, M. A. (2021). The Nonidentity Problem. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Roberts, W. A. (2012). Evidence for future cognition in animals. Learning and Motivation, 43(4), 169–180.

Robock, A. (2010). Nuclear winter. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(3), 418–427.

Robock, A., Oman, L., & Stenchikov, G. L. (2007). Nuclear winter revisited with a modern climate model and current nuclear arsenals: Still catastrophic consequences. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112(D13), 2006JD008235.

Rodriguez, J. P. (Ed.). (1997). The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery. ABC-CLIO.

Rodriguez, J. P. (1999). Chronology of world slavery. ABC-CLIO.

Rodriguez, L. (2019, June 30). How many people would be killed as a direct result of a US-Russia nuclear exchange? [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Roeyer, H., Ahmad, M., Fox, M., & Menon, S. (2020, September 24). Funding trends: Climate change mitigation philanthropy [Web Page]. ClimateWorks Foundation.

Rogelj, J., den Elzen, M., Höhne, N., Fransen, T., Fekete, H., Winkler, H., Schaeffer, R., Sha, F., Riahi, K., & Meinshausen, M. (2016). Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C. Nature, 534(7609), 631–639.

Rogner, H.-H., Aguilera, R. F., Archer, C. L., Bertani, R., Bhattacharya, S. C., Dusseault, M. B., Gagnon, L., Haberl, H., Hoogwijk, M., Johnson, A., Rogner, M. L., Wagner, H., Yakushev, V., Arent, D. J., Bryden, I., Krausmann, F., Odell, P., Schillings, C., Shafiei, A., & Zou, J. (2012). Energy Resources and Potentials. In T. B. Johansson, N. Nakicenovic, A. Patwardhan, & L. Gomez-Echeverri (Eds.), Global Energy Assessment: Toward a Sustainable Future (pp. 425–512). Cambridge University Press.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5, Part 2), S71–S102.

Roodman, D. (2020a). Modeling Human Trajectory, GWP [Dataset]. GitHub.

Roodman, D. (2020b). Modeling the Human Trajectory [Blog]. Open Philanthropy.

Rose, K. D. (2006). The beginning of the age of mammals. Johns Hopkins university press.

Roser, M. (2013a). Democracy [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2013b). Economic Growth [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2013c). Employment in Agriculture [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2013d). Global Economic Inequality [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2018, October 8). Twice as long – life expectancy around the world [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2019a). Economic Growth [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2019b, June 11). Mortality in the past – around half died as children [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2020a). The Spanish flu (1918-20): The global impact of the largest influenza pandemic in history [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M. (2020b). Why did renewables become so cheap so fast? [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., & Nagdy, M. (2013, August 6). Nuclear Weapons [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., & Nagdy, M. (2014). Optimism and Pessimism [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2016). Global Education [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). Global Extreme Poverty [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Ritchie, H. (2019). Life Expectancy [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., & Ritchie, H. (2013). Food Supply [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Roser, M., Ritchie, H., & Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2019). World Population Growth [Web Page]. Our World in Data.

Rozo, M., & Gronvall, G. K. (2015). The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate. MBio, 6(4).

Ruddiman, W. F., He, F., Vavrus, S. J., & Kutzbach, J. E. (2020). The early anthropogenic hypothesis: A review. Quaternary Science Reviews, 240, 106386.

Rumsfeld, D. H. (2002, February 12). DoD News Briefing—Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers [Transcript] [Web Page]. US Department of Defense.

Runion, M. L. (2007). History of Afghanistan, The. Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Rush, B. (1891). A Reformer of the Last Century. In E. C. Stedman & E. M. Hutchinson (Eds.), A Library of American Literature, from the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time: Vol. III: Literature of the Revolutionary Period, 1765–1787. Charles L. Webster & Company.

Russell, B. (2010). Autobiography (1st ed.). Routledge.

Russell, S. J. (2019). Human compatible: Artificial intelligence and the problem of control. Viking.

Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2020). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach (4th ed.). Pearson.

Sackmann, I.-J., Boothroyd, A. I., & Kraemer, K. E. (1993). Our Sun. III. Present and Future. The Astrophysical Journal, 418, 457.

Sahlins, M. (1972). Stone Age Economics (1st ed.). Routledge.

Sala-Molins, L. (2006). Dark side of the light: Slavery and the French Enlightenment. University of Minnesota Press.

Sandberg, A. (2013). Feasibility of Whole Brain Emulation. In V. C. Müller (Ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence (Vol. 5, pp. 251–264). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Sandberg, A., Drexler, E., & Ord, T. (2018). Dissolving the Fermi Paradox. ArXiv:1806.02404 [Physics].

Scheidel, W. (2012). Slavery. In W. Scheidel (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Economy (1st ed., pp. 89–113). Cambridge University Press.

Scheidel, W. (2019). Escape from Rome: The failure of empire and the road to prosperity. Princeton University Press.

Scheidel, W. (2021). The Scale of Empire: Territory, Population, Distribution. In P. F. Bang, C. A. Bayly, & W. Scheidel (Eds.), The Oxford World History of Empire: Volume One: The Imperial Experience (1st ed., pp. 91–110). Oxford University Press.

Scheidel, W., & Friesen, S. J. (2009). The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire. Journal of Roman Studies, 99, 61–91.

Schein, A., Vafa, K., Sridhar, D., Veitch, V., Quinn, J., Moffet, J., Blei, D. M., & Green, D. P. (2020). A Digital Field Experiment Reveals Large Effects of Friend-to-Friend Texting on Voter Turnout. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Schenker, J. G. (2008). The beginning of human life: Status of embryo. Perspectives in Halakha (Jewish Religious Law). Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 25(6), 271–276.

Schiermeier, Q. (2020). Global methane levels soar to record high. Nature, d41586-020-02116–02118.

Schlaufman, K. C., Thompson, I. B., & Casey, A. R. (2018). An Ultra Metal-poor Star Near the Hydrogen-burning Limit. The Astrophysical Journal, 867(2), 98.

Schlebusch, C. M., Malmström, H., Günther, T., Sjödin, P., Coutinho, A., Edlund, H., Munters, A. R., Vicente, M., Steyn, M., Soodyall, H., Lombard, M., & Jakobsson, M. (2017). Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago. Science, 358(6363), 652–655.

Schneider, T., Kaul, C. M., & Pressel, K. G. (2019). Possible climate transitions from breakup of stratocumulus decks under greenhouse warming. Nature Geoscience, 12(3), 163–167.

Scholtissek, C., von Hoyningen, V., & Rott, R. (1978). Genetic relatedness between the new 1977 epidemic strains (H1N1) of influenza and human influenza strains isolated between 1947 and 1957 (H1N1). Virology, 89(2), 613–617.

Schopenhauer, A. (1974). Arthur Schopenhauer: Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, Vol. 2: Short Philosophical Essays (E. F. J. Payne, Ed.). Oxford University Press.

Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Hubert, T., Simonyan, K., Sifre, L., Schmitt, S., Guez, A., Lockhart, E., Hassabis, D., Graepel, T., Lillicrap, T., & Silver, D. (2020a). Mastering Atari, Go, chess and shogi by planning with a learned model. Nature, 588(7839), 604–609.

Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Hubert, T., Simonyan, K., Sifre, L., Schmitt, S., Guez, A., Lockhart, E., Hassabis, D., Graepel, T., Lillicrap, T., & Silver, D. (2020b). MuZero: Mastering Go, chess, shogi and Atari without rules [Blog]. DeepMind.

Schukraft, J. (2020, November 11). Research Summary: The Intensity of Valenced Experience across Species [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Science. (1998, May 7). Deep Impact Wins Science Kudos. Science.

ScotsCare. (n.d.). Our History | Scotscare [Web Page]. ScotsCare. Retrieved November 26, 2021, from

Scovronick, N., Budolfson, M., Dennig, F., Errickson, F., Fleurbaey, M., Peng, W., Socolow, R. H., Spears, D., & Wagner, F. (2019). The impact of human health co-benefits on evaluations of global climate policy. Nature Communications, 10(1), 2095.

Searle, G. R. (1979). Eugenics and politics in Britain in the 1930s. Annals of Science, 36(2), 159–169.

Searle, J. R. (1980). Minds, brains, and programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(3), 417–424.

servomoore. (2016). Ben Affleck mocks Armageddon. YouTube.

Seth, M. J. (2011). A history of Korea: From antiquity to the present. Rowman & Littlefield.

Sevilla, J. (2021a). Can we influence the values of our descendants? [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Sevilla, J. (2021b). Persistence—A critical review [ABRIDGED] [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum.

Shakespeare, W. (2002). The Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete Sonnets and Poems (C. Burrow, Ed.). Oxford University Press.

Shead, S. (2020, May 15). Peter Thiel’s New Zealand Estate Lies Neglected as Coronavirus Drives Preppers into Hiding. CNBC.

Sherwood, S. (2011). Science controversies past and present. Physics Today, 64(10), 39–44.

Shooter, R. A. (Ed.). (1980). Report of the investigation into the cause of the 1978 Birmingham smallpox occurrence. [Report]. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Short, P. (2005). Pol Pot: Anatomy of a nightmare. Macmillan.

Shu, D.-G., Luo, H.-L., Conway Morris, S., Zhang, X.-L., Hu, S.-X., Chen, L., Han, J., Zhu, M., Li, Y., & Chen, L.-Z. (1999). Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China. Nature, 402(6757), 42–46.

Shulman, C. (2020, October 15). What do historical statistics teach us about the accidental release of pandemic bioweapons? [Blog]. *Reflective Disequilibrium*.

Silver, D., Huang, A., Maddison, C. J., Guez, A., Sifre, L., van den Driessche, G., Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Panneershelvam, V., Lanctot, M., Dieleman, S., Grewe, D., Nham, J., Kalchbrenner, N., Sutskever, I., Lillicrap, T., Leach, M., Kavukcuoglu, K., Graepel, T., & Hassabis, D. (2016). Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search. Nature, 529(7587), 484–489.

Silver, D., Hubert, T., Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Lai, M., Guez, A., Lanctot, M., Sifre, L., Kumaran, D., Graepel, T., Lillicrap, T., Simonyan, K., & Hassabis, D. (2018). A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play. Science, 362(6419), 1140–1144.

Silver, D., Schrittwieser, J., Simonyan, K., Antonoglou, I., Huang, A., Guez, A., Hubert, T., Baker, L., Lai, M., Bolton, A., Chen, Y., Lillicrap, T., Hui, F., Sifre, L., van den Driessche, G., Graepel, T., & Hassabis, D. (2017). Mastering the game of Go without human knowledge. Nature, 550(7676), 354–359.

Sima, Q. (1971). Records of the grand historian of China (B. Watson, Trans.; Vol. 2). Columbia University Press. (Original work published c. 94 BC)

Šimčikas, S. (n.d.). Estimates of global captive vertebrate numbers [Blog]. Effective Altruism Forum. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

Šimčikas, S. (2019, August 9). Corporate campaigns affect 9 to 120 years of chicken life per dollar spent [Web Page]. Rethink Priorities.

Sinha, M. (2016). The slave’s cause: A history of abolition. Yale University Press.

Sivaram, V. (2018). Taming the sun: Innovations to harness solar energy and power the planet. The MIT Press.

Slave Voyages. (2018). Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade—Estimates [Dataset]. Slave Voyages.

Sloat, L. L., Davis, S. J., Gerber, J. S., Moore, F. C., Ray, D. K., West, P. C., & Mueller, N. D. (2020). Climate adaptation by crop migration. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1243.

Smith, F. A., Elliott Smith, R. E., Lyons, S. K., Payne, J. L., & Villaseñor, A. (2019). The accelerating influence of humans on mammalian macroecological patterns over the late Quaternary. Quaternary Science Reviews, 211, 1–16.

Soderlund, J. R. (1995). Quakers and Slavery: A Divided Spirit. Princeton University Press.

Solow, R. M. (1956). A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65.

Sorkin, B. (2008). A biomechanical constraint on body mass in terrestrial mammalian predators. Lethaia, 41(4), 333–347.

Sovacool, B. K., Andersen, R., Sorensen, S., Sorensen, K., Tienda, V., Vainorius, A., Schirach, O. M., & Bjørn-Thygesen, F. (2016). Balancing safety with sustainability: Assessing the risk of accidents for modern low-carbon energy systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 3952–3965.

Spratt, B. (2007). Independent Review of the safety of UK facilities handling foot-and-mouth disease virus [Report]. Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Spreeuwenberg, P., Kroneman, M., & Paget, J. (2018). Reassessing the Global Mortality Burden of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(12), 2561–2567.

Srinivasan, A. (2017, January 6). Remembering Derek Parfit [Blog]. London Review of Books.

Stampp, K. (1956). The peculiar institution: Slavery in the ante-bellum South. Vintage.

Stanaway, J. D., Afshin, A., Gakidou, E., Lim, S. S., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbasi, N., Abbastabar, H., Abd-Allah, F., Abdela, J., Abdelalim, A., Abdollahpour, I., Abdulkader, R. S., Abebe, M., Abebe, Z., Abera, S. F., Abil, O. Z., Abraha, H. N., … Murray, C. J. L. (2018). Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), 1923–1994.

Stark, R. (1984). The Rise of a New World Faith. Review of Religious Research, 26(1), 18.

Stark, R. (1996). The rise of Christianity: A sociologist reconsiders history. Princeton University Press.

Stark, R. (2005). The Rise of Mormonism (R. Neilson, Ed.). Columbia University Press.

Steckel, R. H. (2012). Demography and Slavery. In M. M. Smith & R. L. Paquette (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Slavery in the Americas (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Steckel, R. H., & Jensen, R. A. (1986). New Evidence on the Causes of Slave and Crew Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade. The Journal of Economic History, 46(1), 57–77.

Stephan, J. (2008). Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005 [Report, NCJ 222182]. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.

Stephens, L., Fuller, D., Boivin, N., Rick, T., Gauthier, N., Kay, A., Marwick, B., Armstrong, C. G., Barton, C. M., Denham, T., Douglass, K., Driver, J., Janz, L., Roberts, P., Rogers, J. D., Thakar, H., Altaweel, M., Johnson, A. L., Sampietro Vattuone, M. M., … Ellis, E. (2019). Archaeological assessment reveals Earth’s early transformation through land use. Science, 365(6456), 897–902.

Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2008a). Economic Growth and Subjective Well-Being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2008(1), 1–87.

Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2008b). Happiness Inequality in the United States. The Journal of Legal Studies, 37(S2), S33–S79.

Stewart, M., Carleton, W. C., & Groucutt, H. S. (2021). Climate change, not human population growth, correlates with Late Quaternary megafauna declines in North America. Nature Communications, 12(1), 965.

Stowage of the British slave ship “Brookes” under the Regulated Slave Trade Act of 1788 [LC-USZ62-44000] (British). (1788). Library of Congress.

Strait, D. S. (2013). Human Systematics. In D. R. Begun (Ed.), A Companion to Paleoanthropology (pp. 35–54). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Student statistics. (2021). [Dataset]. Student Statistics, University of Oxford.

Sullivan, A. (2020). Britain’s War Against the Slave Trade: The Operations of the Royal Navy’s West Africa Squadron 1807–1867. Frontline Books.

Sullivan, K., & Bui, L. T. (2016). With the future coming up behind them: Evidence that Time approaches from behind in Vietnamese. Cognitive Linguistics, 27(2), 205–233.

Supernor, B. (2018, January 25). Why the cost of cloud computing is dropping dramatically [Web Page]. App Developer Magazine.

Surovell, T. A., & Waguespack, N. M. (2008). How many elephant kills are 14? Quaternary International, 191(1), 82–97.

Suzman, J. (2017). Affluence without abundance: The disappearing world of the Bushmen. Bloomsbury.

Swan, T. W. (1956). Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation. Economic Record, 32(2), 334–361.

Szikra, D. (2014). Democracy and welfare in hard times: The social policy of the Orbán Government in Hungary between 2010 and 2014. Journal of European Social Policy, 24(5), 486–500.

Talento, S., & Ganopolski, A. (2021). Evolution of the climate in the next million years: A reduced-complexity model for glacial cycles and impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions [preprint]. Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Tamay. (2019, January 15). Ragnarök Series—Results so far.

Tammen, R. L., Kugler, J., & Lemke, D. (2017). Foundations of Power Transition Theory. In W. Thompson (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Oxford University Press.

Tannenwald, N. (1999). The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Normative Basis of Nuclear Non-Use. International Organization, 53(3), 433–468.

Tanner, H. M. (2009). China: A history. Hackett Pub. Co.

Tarsney, C. (2020a). Exceeding Expectations: Stochastic Dominance as a General Decision Theory [GPI Working Paper No. 3-2020]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

Tarsney, C. (2020b). The epistemic challenge to longtermism [GPI Working Paper No. 10-2019]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

Tarsney, C., & Thomas, T. (2020). Non-Additive Axiologies in Large Worlds. ArXiv:2010.06842 [Econ], Global Priorities Institute Working Paper No. 9-2020.

Tatz, C. M., & Higgins, W. (2016). The magnitude of genocide. Praeger.

Taylor, M. (2021). The interest: How the British establishment resisted the abolition of slavery. Vintage.

Taylor, W. B. (1999). Down on Parchman Farm: The great prison in the Mississippi Delta. Ohio State University Press.

Tbakhi, A., & Amr, S. S. (2007). Ibn Al-Haytham: Father of Modern Optics. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 27(6), 464–467.

Tegmark, M. (2017). Life 3.0: Being human in the age of artificial intelligence. Alfred A. Knopf.

Temin, P. (2017). The Roman market economy (First paperback printing). Princeton University Press.

Tetlock, P. E., & Gardner, D. (2016). Superforecasting: The art and science of prediction. Random House Books.

The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations: The Great Binding Law, Gayanashagowa (A. Parker, Trans.). (1910, 1996). [Web Page]. Internet History Sourcebooks Project.

Theodorou, A. E., & Sandstrom, A. (2015, October 6). How abortion is regulated around the world [Web Page]. Pew Research Center.

Thucydides. (1972). History of the Peloponnesian War (M. I. Finley, Ed.; R. Warner, Trans.). Penguin Books. (Original work published c. 425 BC)

Todd, B. (2021a). How much do people differ in productivity? What the evidence says. [Blog]. 80,000 Hours.

Todd, B. (2021b). Career capital: How best to invest in yourself [Web Page]. 80,000 Hours.

Tomasik, B. (2017). Humanity’s Impact on the Aggregate Metabolism of Land Wild Animals: An Analysis of Krausmann et al. (2013) [Blog]. Essays on Reducing Suffering.

Tomasik, B. (2018). Humanity’s Net Impact on Wild-Animal Suffering [Blog]. Essays on Reducing Suffering.

Trammell, P., & Korinek, A. (2020). Economic growth under transformative AI – Philip (Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University) and Anton Korinek (University of Virginia) [GPI Working Paper No. 8-2020]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

Triki, Z., Emery, Y., Teles, M. C., Oliveira, R. F., & Bshary, R. (2020). Brain morphology predicts social intelligence in wild cleaner fish. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6423.

Turing, A. (1951). Intelligent Machinery, A Heretical Theory (c.1951). In C. Copeland (Ed.), The Essential Turing. Oxford University Press.

Turnbull, C. M. (2015). The forest people. Bodley Head.

Tyson, A., Kennedy, B., & Funk, C. (2021). Gen Z, Millennials Stand Out for Climate Change Activism, Social Media Engagement With Issue [Report].

Ubilla, M., Rinderknecht, A., Corona, A., & Perea, D. (2018). Mammals in Last 30 to 7 ka Interval (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) in Southern Uruguay (Santa Lucía River Basin): Last Occurrences, Climate, and Biogeography. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 25(2), 291–300.

Ufficio di Statistica e Censimento. (1960). Roma: Popolazione e territorio dal 1860 al 1960. Comune di Roma, Ufficio di Statistica e Censimento.

UK Civil Aviation Authority. (2013). Global fatal accident review, 2002-2011. The Stationery Office.

UK Office for National Statistics. (2018). Regional gross value added (income approach) [Dataset]. Office for National Statistics.

UK Office for National Statistics. (2019). Life expectancy calculator [Web Page]. Office for National Statistics.

UK Parliament. (2021). Parliament and the British Slave Trade: Key dates [Web Page]. UK Parliament.

UK Parliament. (2021a). Key dates [Web Page]. UK Parliament.

  1. (1963). United Nations Demographic Yearbook 1962. UN.
  2. (2019a). International Migrant Stock 2019—POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2019 [Dataset]. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  3. (2019b). World Population Prospects 2019, Online Edition. Rev. 1. File INT/1: Interpolated demographic indicators [Dataset]. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  4. (2019c). World Population Prospects 2019, Online Edition. Rev. 1. File MORT7-1—Life expectancy at birth [Dataset]. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  5. (2021a). Fourth (2020) Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flow [Report]. Standing Committee on Finance, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  6. (2021b). Our Common Agenda—Report of the Secretary-General. United Nations.

UNESCO. (n.d.). Republic of Korea | Silk Roads Programme [Web Page]. UNESCO. Retrieved November 18, 2021, from

US Department of Energy. (n.d.). The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima [Web Page]. The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History. Retrieved November 18, 2021, from

US Energy Information Administration. (2021a). International [Dataset]. US Energy Information Administration.

US Energy Information Administration. (2021b). In 2020, U.S. coal production fell to its lowest level since 1965 [Web Page]. EIA.

US Federal Bureau of Prisons. (n.d.-a). UNICOR – Program Details [Web Page]. US Federal Bureau of Prisons.

US Federal Bureau of Prisons. (n.d.-b). UNICOR Socio-Economic Impact [Web Page]. US Federal Bureau of Prisons.

US National Academy of Sciences. (1992). Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. National Academies Press.

US National Archives. (2016, September 8). 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery [Web Page]. US National Archives and Records Administration.

US National Archives. (2021, October 7). The Constitution: How Did it Happen? [Web Page]. US National Archives and Records Administration.

US News. (2020, June 16). India, China Face Off in First Deadly Clash in Decades. US News.

US Selective Service System. (2021, August 16). Induction Statistics [Web Page]. US Selective Service System.

US Strategic Bombing Survey. (1946). The Effects of the Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Report]. National Archives.

van Beurden, B. (2019, June 11). Climate change: The difference business can make [Web Page]. Shell.

Van Cleve, J., & Weissman, D. B. (2015). Measuring ruggedness in fitness landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(24), 7345–7346.

van der Merwe, M. (2018). Global nuclear stockpiles [Dataset].

Van Norden, B. (2007). Virtue Ethics and Consequentialism in Early Chinese Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.

Van Norden, B. (2019). Mencius. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2019). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Varki, A. (2016). Why are there no persisting hybrids of humans with Denisovans, Neanderthals, or anyone else? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(17), E2354–E2354.

Vaswani, A., Shazeer, N., Parmar, N., Uszkoreit, J., Jones, L., Gomez, A. N., Kaiser, L., & Polosukhin, I. (2017). Attention is All You Need. Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, 6000–6010.

Vaux, R. (1815). Memoirs of the Lives of Benjamin Lay and Ralph Sandiford. Solomon W. Conrad; Wikisource.

Vigne, J.-D. (2011). The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: A major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 334(3), 171–181.

Vinyals, O., Babuschkin, I., Czarnecki, W. M., Mathieu, M., Dudzik, A., Chung, J., Choi, D. H., Powell, R., Ewalds, T., Georgiev, P., Oh, J., Horgan, D., Kroiss, M., Danihelka, I., Huang, A., Sifre, L., Cai, T., Agapiou, J. P., Jaderberg, M., … Silver, D. (2019). Grandmaster level in StarCraft II using multi-agent reinforcement learning. Nature, 575(7782), 350–354.

Volk, A. A., & Atkinson, J. A. (2013). Infant and child death in the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(3), 182–192.

Vollset, S. E., Goren, E., Yuan, C.-W., Cao, J., Smith, A. E., Hsiao, T., Bisignano, C., Azhar, G. S., Castro, E., Chalek, J., Dolgert, A. J., Frank, T., Fukutaki, K., Hay, S. I., Lozano, R., Mokdad, A. H., Nandakumar, V., Pierce, M., Pletcher, M., … Murray, C. J. L. (2020). Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: A forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet, 396(10258), 1285–1306.

von Bloh, W. (2008). Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics. In S. E. Jorgensen & B. Fath (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Ecology (Vol. 1, pp. 592–598). Elsevier Science.

Voosen, P. (2019). A world without clouds? Hardly clear, climate scientists say. Science.

Voth, H.-J. (2021). Persistence – myth and mystery. In A. Bisin & G. Federico (Eds.), The Handbook of Historical Economics (pp. 243–267). Elsevier.

Wada, M. (2015). Hiroshima, 70 Years After the Atomic Bombing: Rebirth of the City, Part 1 [4] [Web Page]. Hiroshima Peace Media Center.

Walk Free Foudation. (2018). Global Slavery Index 2018 [Report]. Walk Free Foudation.

Walker, S. (2020, March 4). “Baby machines”: Eastern Europe’s answer to depopulation. The Guardian.

Walsh, L. S. (2011). Slavery in the North American Mainland Colonies. In D. Eltis & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 3, pp. 407–430). Cambridge University Press.

Waltz, K. N. (1990). Nuclear Myths and Political Realities. American Political Science Review, 84(3), 730–745.

Walvin, J. (1983). Slaves and Serfs. In J. Walvin, Slavery and the Slave Trade (pp. 13–24). Macmillan Education UK.

Wang, Y., Wang, R., & Kakade, S. M. (2021). An Exponential Lower Bound for Linearly Realizable MDP with Constant Suboptimality Gap. 35th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems.

Ward-Perkins, B. (2005). The fall of Rome: And the end of civilization. Oxford University Press.

Ware, R. T. (2011). Slavery in Islamic Africa, 1400–1800. In D. Eltis & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The Cambridge World History of Slavery (1st ed., Vol. 3, pp. 47–80). Cambridge University Press.

Way, R., Ives, M. C., Mealy, P., & Farmer, J. D. (2021). Empirically grounded technology forecasts and the energy transition [Working Paper No. 2021-01]. Institute for New Economic Thinking, University of Oxford.

Weiner, A. M. (2009). Ultrafast optics. Wiley.

Weir, A. (2009). The Egg [Web Page]. Galactanet.

Weitzman, M. L. (2011). Fat-Tailed Uncertainty in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 5(2), 275–292.

Wellerstein, A. (2020, August 4). Counting the dead at Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Blog]. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Wellerstein, A. (2021, October 29). The untold story of the world’s biggest nuclear bomb [Blog]. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Welsby, D., Price, J., Pye, S., & Ekins, P. (2021). Unextractable fossil fuels in a 1.5 °C world. Nature, 597(7875), 230–234.

Wertheim, J. O. (2010). The Re-Emergence of H1N1 Influenza Virus in 1977: A Cautionary Tale for Estimating Divergence Times Using Biologically Unrealistic Sampling Dates. PLoS ONE, 5(6), e11184.

Wetterstrand, K. (2021, November 1). The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome [Web Page]. National Human Genome Research Institute.

Whitford, R., Fleury, D., Reif, J. C., Garcia, M., Okada, T., Korzun, V., & Langridge, P. (2013). Hybrid breeding in wheat: Technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64(18), 5411–5428.

WHO. (2021). Household air pollution and health [Web Page]. World Health Organization.

WHO. (2021a). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) [Web Page]. The Global Health Observatory.

Wiblin, R. (2020, October). Why is voting important if you care about social impact? [Web Page]. 80,000 Hours.

Wiblin, R., & Harris, K. (2019, February 27). Can journalists still write about important things? [Web Page]. 80,000 Hours.

Wiblin, R., & Harris, K. (2021a, January 19). Ajeya Cotra on worldview diversification and how big the future could be [Web Page]. 80,000 Hours.

Wiblin, R., & Harris, K. (2021b, October 5). Carl Shulman on the common-sense case for existential risk work and its practical implications [Web Page]. 80,000 Hours.

Wiggers, K. (2020, October 15). Google details how it’s using AI and machine learning to improve search [Web Page]. VentureBeat.

Wignall, P. B. (2019a). 5. How to kill nearly everything. In P. B. Wignall, Extinction: A Very Short Introduction (pp. 76–95). Oxford University Press.

Wignall, P. B. (2019b). 6. What happened to the Ice Age megafauna? In P. B. Wignall, Extinction: A Very Short Introduction (pp. 96–116). Oxford University Press.

Wikipedia. (2021b). Dire wolf. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

Wilbur, C. M. (2011). Industrial Slavery in China During the Former Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 25). The Journal of Economic History, 3(1), 56–69. (Original work published 1943)

Wilcox, C. (2011, April 12). Bambi or Bessie: Are wild animals happier? [Blog]. Scientific American.

Wilkinson, H. (2020). In defence of fanaticism [GPI Working Paper No. 4-2020]. Global Priorities Institute, Oxford University.

Wilkinson, H. (2022). In Defense of Fanaticism. Ethics, 132(2), 445–477.

Williams, E. (1944). Capitalism and Slavery. University of North Carolina Press.

Williams, E. G. (2015). The Possibility of an Ongoing Moral Catastrophe. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 18(5), 971–982.

Winter, D. (n.d.-b). Pong-Story: Atari PONG – First steps [Web Page]. PONG-Story.

Witte, G. (2019, February 11). Hungary is so desperate for kids that mothers of four won’t need to pay income tax. The Washington Post.

Wolf, E. T., & Toon, O. B. (2014). Delayed onset of runaway and moist greenhouse climates for Earth: The future of earth habitability. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(1), 167–172.

Wolf, E. T., & Toon, O. B. (2015). The evolution of habitable climates under the brightening Sun: Three-dimensional modeling of hot climates. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(12), 5775–5794.

Wong, D. (2021). Chinese Ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2021). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Wong, T. Y. W. (2019). The evolutionary contingency thesis and evolutionary idiosyncrasies. Biology & Philosophy, 34(2), 22.

Wood, B., Doherty, D., & Boyle, E. (2020). Hominin Taxic Diversity. In M. Aldenderfer (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Oxford University Press.

World Bank. (2020). Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020: Reversals of Fortune. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021a). Fertility rate, total (births per woman)—Hungary [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021b). Fertility rate, total (births per woman)—Germany, Japan, United States, China [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021c). Fertility rate, total (births per woman)—India [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021d). GDP (current US$) [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021e). GDP growth (annual %) [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021f). GDP, PPP (constant 2017 international $) [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021g). GDP, PPP (current international $) [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021h). GDP, PPP (current international $)—United States, China [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021i). Land area (sq. Km)—European Union [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021m). World Development Indicators | Data Catalog [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Bank. (2021n). World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) [Dataset]. World Bank.

World Values Survey 7. (2020). Findings and Insights [Web Page]. WVS Database.

Wright, L. (2002, September 8). The Man Behind Bin Laden. The New Yorker.

Wright, P. (2001, November 28). Vladimir Pasechnik. The Guardian.

Wyatt, D. (2009). Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland, 800 -1200. Brill.

Wyden, P. (1979). Bay of Pigs: The untold story (1st Touchstone ed). Simon and Schuster.

Wynes, S., & Nicholas, K. A. (2017). The climate mitigation gap: Education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions. Environmental Research Letters, 12(7), 074024.

Yan, J. (2021, January 21). Why I took the Giving What We Can Pledge [Web Page]. Giving What We Can.

Yarmolinsky, A. (1957). Dostoevsky: His life and art (2nd ed.). Criterion Books.

Yates, R. (2001). Slavery in Early China: A Socio-Cultural Approach. Journal of East Asian Archaeology, 3(1), 283–331.

Yglesias, M. (2020). One billion Americans: The case for thinking bigger. Portfolio.

Young, G. K. (2001). Rome’s eastern trade: International commerce and imperial policy, 31 BC-AD 305. Routledge.

Yuan, Y., Guo, H., Xu, H., Li, W., Luo, S., Lin, H., & Yuan, Y. (2010). China’s First Special Economic Zone: The Case of Shenzhen. In D. Z. Zeng (Ed.), Building Engines for Growth and Competitiveness in China: Experience with Special Economic Zones and Industrial Clusters (pp. 55–86). World Bank.

Yudkowsky, E. (2001). Creating Friendly Ai 1.0: The Analysis and Design of Benevolent Goal Architectures [Report]. The Singularity Institute.

Zabel, F., Putzenlechner, B., & Mauser, W. (2014). Global Agricultural Land Resources – A High Resolution Suitability Evaluation and Its Perspectives until 2100 under Climate Change Conditions. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e107522.

Zaidi, W., & Dafoe, A. (2021). International Control of Powerful Technology: Lessons from the Baruch Plan for Nuclear Weapons [Working Paper]. Centre for the Governance of AI, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford.

Zanon, M., Davis, B. A. S., Marquer, L., Brewer, S., & Kaplan, J. O. (2018). European Forest Cover During the Past 12,000 Years: A Palynological Reconstruction Based on Modern Analogs and Remote Sensing. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 253.

Zelicoff, A. P. (2003). An Epidemiological Analysis of the 1971 Smallpox Outbreak in Aralsk, Kazakhstan. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 29(2), 97–108.

Zhang, B., Anderljung, M., Kahn, L., Dreksler, N., Horowitz, M. C., & Dafoe, A. (2022). Ethics and Governance of Artificial Intelligence: Evidence from a Survey of Machine Learning Researchers. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 71.

Zhang, C., & Yang, J. (2020). Ancient Machines. In C. Zhang & J. Yang, A History of Mechanical Engineering (pp. 11–64). Springer Singapore.

Zhang, D. D., Lee, H. F., Wang, C., Li, B., Pei, Q., Zhang, J., & An, Y. (2011). The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(42), 17296–17301.

Zhang, D. D., Lee, H. F., Wang, C., Li, B., Zhang, J., Pei, Q., & Chen, J. (2011). Climate change and large-scale human population collapses in the pre-industrial era: Climate change and human population collapses. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20(4), 520–531.

Zhang, D., & Lie, R. K. (2018). Ethical issues in human germline gene editing: A perspective from China. Monash Bioethics Review, 36(1–4), 23–35.

Zhu, Z. S., & Hu, B. Y. (2011). San Zi Jing: A Chinese Primer. Childhood Education, 87(6), 415–420.

Zijdeman, R., & Ribeira da Silva, F. (2015). Life Expectancy at Birth (Total) (V1 ed.) [Dataset]. International Institute of Social History.

Zimmer, S. M., & Burke, D. S. (2009). Historical Perspective—Emergence of Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses. New England Journal of Medicine, 361(3), 279–285.

Zuber, S., Venkatesh, N., Tännsjö, T., Tarsney, C., Stefánsson, H. O., Steele, K., Spears, D., Sebo, J., Pivato, M., Ord, T., Ng, Y.-K., Masny, M., MacAskill, W., Lawson, N., Kuruc, K., Hutchinson, M., Gustafsson, J. E., Greaves, H., Forsberg, L., … Asheim, G. B. (2021). What Should We Agree on about the Repugnant Conclusion? Utilitas, 33(4), 379–383.

Zurita, A. E., Gillette, D. D., Cuadrelli, F., & Carlini, A. A. (2018). A tale of two clades: Comparative study of Glyptodon Owen and Glyptotherium Osborn (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae). Geobios, 51(3), 247–258.